Etymology
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bark (n.1)

"tree skin, hard covering of plants," c. 1300, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse börkr "bark," from Proto-Germanic *barkuz, which probably is related to birch and Low German borke. The native word was rind.

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bark (v.1)

"utter an abrupt, explosive cry" (especially of dogs), Middle English berken (c. 1200), bark (late 15c.), from Old English beorcan "to bark," from Proto-Germanic *berkan (source also of Old Norse berkja "to bark"), of echoic origin. Related: Barked; barking.

To bark at the moon "complain uselessly" is from 1650s. To bark up the wrong tree "mistake one's object, attack or pursue something other than what is intended" is U.S. colloquial, attested by 1832, from notion of hounds following the wrong scent.

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bark (n.3)

dog sound, Old English beorc, from bark (v.). Paired and compared with bite (n.) at least since 1660s; the proverb is older: "Timid dogs bark worse than they bite" was in Latin (Canis timidus vehementius latrat quam mordet, Quintius Curtius).

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bark (v.2)

"strip off the bark" (of a tree), 1540s, from bark (n.). Transferred sense "strip or rub off the skin" is from 1850. It also meant "kill a squirrel or other small animal by percussive force by shooting the bullet into the tree immediately below it," thus preserving the specimen intact (the technique is attested by 1828). Related: Barked; barking.

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barkeep (n.)

"one who has charge of a bar in a tavern, etc.," 1846, probably short for barkeeper (1712); from bar (n.2) + agent noun of keep (v.).

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barker (n.)

late 14c., "a dog;" late 15c., "noisy fellow;" agent noun from bark (v.). Specific sense of "loud assistant in an auction, store, or show" is from 1690s.

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barley (n.)

hardy cereal plant, Old English bærlic, apparently originally an adjective, "of barley," from bere "barley" (from Proto-Germanic *bariz, *baraz) + -lic "body, like." The first element is related to Old Norse barr "barley," and cognate with Latin far (genitive farris) "coarse grain, meal" (see farina).

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barleycorn (n.)

"barley," late 14c., from barley + corn (n.1). Perhaps to distinguish the barley plant or the grain from its products. In Britain and U.S., the grain is used mainly to prepare liquor, hence personification of malt liquor as John Barleycorn (1620) in popular ballads, and many now-obsolete figures of speech, such as to wear a barley cap (16c.) "to be drunk."

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barm (n.)

Old English beorma "yeast, leaven," also "head of a beer," from Proto-Germanic *bhermen- "yeast" (source also of Dutch berm, Middle Low German barm), from suffixed form of PIE root *bhreu- "to boil, bubble, effervesce, burn."

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barmaid (n.)

"woman who tends a bar," 1650s, from bar (n.2) + maid.

The one employment from which Americans turn their faces in righteous horror is that of the barmaid. They consider it a degrading position, and can not understand how English people reconcile with their professions of Christianity the barbarous practice of exposing women to the atmosphere of a liquor bar at a railway station, where they must often run the gauntlet of the insolent attentions of the "half-intoxicated masher," endure vulgar familiarity, and overhear low conversation. [Emily Faithfull, "Three Visits to America," 1884]
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