Semitic (adj.)

1797, denoting the major language group that includes Hebrew, Arabic, Aramaic, Assyrian, etc., distinguished by triliteral verbal roots and vowel inflection; 1826 as "of or pertaining to Semites," from Medieval Latin Semiticus (source of Spanish semitico, French semitique, German semitisch), from Semita (see Semite).

As a noun, as the name of a linguistic family, from 1813. In non-linguistic use, it is perhaps directly from German semitisch. In recent use often with the specific sense "Jewish," but not historically so delimited.

Related entries & more 

18c., the former English transliteration of the name of the major port city in southern China and the region around it, properly the name of the region, now known in English as Guangdong (formerly also transliterated as Quang-tung, Kwangtung), from guang "wide, large, vast" + dong "east." The city name itself is now transliterated as Guangzhou (guang, from the province name, + zhou "region"). One of the first Chinese cities open to Westerners; the older form of the name is from the British-run, Hong Kong-based Chinese postal system.

Related entries & more 
schoolmarm (n.)

also school-marm, "female school teacher," 1834, American English colloquial, in the popular countrified humor writing of "Major Jack Downing" of Maine (Seba Smith); a variant of school-ma'am (1828), from school (n.1) + ma'am. See R. Used figuratively from 1887 in reference to patronizing and priggish instruction.

School-mistress "woman who teaches in a school" is attested from c. 1500 (mid-14c. as a surname, scole-maistres). School-dame (1650s) was generally "an old woman who keeps a school for small children."

Related entries & more 
mayor (n.)

"principal officer of a municipality, chief magistrate of a city or borough," c. 1300, mair, meir (mid-13c. as a surname), from Old French maire "head of a city or town government" (13c.), originally "greater, superior" (adj.), from Latin maior, major, comparative of magnus "great, large, big" (of size), "abundant" (of quantity), "great, considerable" (of value), "strong, powerful" (of force); of persons, "elder, aged," also, figuratively, "great, mighty, grand, important," from PIE *mag-no-, from root *meg- "great."

Mayoress is attested from late 15c. as "the wife of a mayor;" by 1863 as "woman holding the office of mayor."

Related entries & more 
scrumptious (adj.)

1833, American English, in countrified humor writing of "Major Jack Downing" of Maine (Seba Smith), "stylish, splendid, fine;" probably a colloquial alteration (intensification) of sumptuous. By late 19c. especially of food, "delicious, delightful," and it was noted 1890s and early 20c. as a vogue word among college girls (also as scrum, scrummy). Related: Scrumptiously; scrumptiousness.

OED (2nd edition, print) has scrumptious as probably identical with dialectal scrumptious "mean, stingy, close-fisted," and ultimately related to shrimp. The editors insist the sense transition "is not impossible," and they compare nice.

Related entries & more 
bogey (n.2)

in golf, c. 1891, originally "number of strokes a good player is supposed to need for a given hole or course;" later, "score one over par" (1946); from the same source as bogey (n.1), on the notion of a "phantom" opponent, represented by the "ground score." The word was in vogue at the time in Britain through the popularity of a music-hall tune "Hush, Hush, Hush, Here Comes the Bogey Man."

One popular song at least has left its permanent effect on the game of golf. That song is 'The Bogey Man.' In 1890 Dr. Thos. Browne, R.N., the hon. secretary of the Great Yarmouth Club, was playing against a Major Wellman, the match being against the 'ground score,' which was the name given to the scratch value of each hole. The system of playing against the 'ground score' was new to Major Wellman, and he exclaimed, thinking of the song of the moment, that his mysterious and well-nigh invincible opponent was a regular 'bogey-man.' The name 'caught on' at Great Yarmouth, and to-day 'Bogey' is one of the most feared opponents on all the courses that acknowledge him. [1908, cited in OED]

Other early golfing sources give it an American origin. As a verb, attested by 1948.

Related entries & more 
minor (n.)

early 14c., Menour, "a Franciscan," from Latin Fratres Minores "lesser brethren," name chosen by the order's founder, St. Francis, for the sake of humility; see minor (adj.). From c. 1400 as "minor premise of a syllogism." From 1610s as "person of either sex who is under legal age for the performance of certain acts" (Latin used minores (plural) for "the young"). Musical sense is from 1797 (see the adjective). Academic meaning "secondary subject of study, subject of study with fewer credits than a major" is from 1890; as a verb in this sense by 1905.

Related entries & more 
majority (n.)

1550s, "state or condition of being greater, superiority"(a sense now obsolete), from French majorité (16c.), from Medieval Latin majoritatem (nominative majoritas) "majority," from Latin maior "greater" (see major (adj.)).

Sense of "state of being of full age, age at which the law permits a young person to manage his own affairs," is attested from 1560s. The meaning "greater number or part, more than half of the whole" (of votes, etc.) is by 1690s; that of "the excess of one of two groups of enumerated votes over the other" is by 1743. The majority "the dead" recorded from 1719; hence euphemistic verbal phrase join the majority.

Related entries & more 
modulate (v.)

1610s, in music, "vary or inflect the sound of," especially to give expressiveness, "vary the pitch of," back-formation from modulation, or else from Latin modulatus, past participle of modulari "regulate, measure off properly, measure rhythmically; play, play upon," from modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures").

General sense of "modify, adjust, adapt, regulate in measure or proportion" is from 1620s. The intransitive musical sense of "pass from one key to another, or between major and minor" is attested by 1721. In telecommunications from 1908. Meaning "exert a controlling influence on, regulate" is by 1964. Related: Modulated; modulating.

Related entries & more 
arabesque (n.)

1786, "Moorish or Arabic ornamental design," from French arabesque (16c.), from Italian arabesco, from Arabo "Arab" (see Arab), with reference to Moorish architecture. In reference to an ornamented theme or passage in piano music it is attested by 1853, originally the title given in 1839 by Robert Schumann to one of his piano pieces ("Arabeske in C major"). As a ballet pose, attested by 1830.

The name arabesque applied to the flowing ornament of Moorish invention is exactly suited to express those graceful lines which are their counterpart in the art of dancing. ["A Manual of the Theory and Practice of Classical Theatrical Dancing," 1922]
Related entries & more 

Page 4