Etymology
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excavate (v.)

"to hollow out, make hollow by digging or scooping, or by removing extraneous matter," 1590s, from Latin excavatus, past participle of excavare "to hollow out," from ex "out" (see ex-) + cavare "to hollow, hollow out," from cavus "cave" (from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole"). Related: Excavated; excavating.

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cope (n.)

c. 1200, "large outer garment, cloak, mantle," late 13c. in the specific ecclesiastical sense of "large mantle of silk or other material worn by priests or bishops over the alb on special occasions," from Medieval Latin capa "cloak," from Late Latin cappa (see cap (n.)). It was used figuratively for the "cloak" of night's darkness, from which it was extended to "vault of the sky" in the once-common poetic phrase cope of heaven (late 14c.).

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palate (n.)

late 14c., "roof of the mouth of a human or animal; the parts which separate the oral from the nasal cavity," from Old French palat and directly from Latin palatum "roof of the mouth," also "a vault," which is perhaps of Etruscan origin [Klein], but de Vaan suggests an IE root meaning "flat, broad, wide." It was popularly considered to be the seat of the sense of taste, hence transferred meaning "sense of taste" (late 14c.), which also was in classical Latin.

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apse (n.)
"semicircular extension at the end of a church," 1846, from Latin apsis "an arch, a vault," from Greek hapsis (Ionic apsis) "loop, arch," originally "a fastening, felloe of a wheel," from haptein "fasten together," which is of unknown origin. The original sense in Greek seems to have been the joining of the arcs to form a circle, especially in making a wheel. The architectural term is earlier attested in English in the Latin form (1706). Related: Apsidal.
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coping (n.)

c. 1600 as an architectural term, "the top or cover of a wall, usually sloped to shed water," a specialized use of cope (n.), the cape-like vestment worn by priests, which is a a variant of cape (n.1). Cope (v.) "to provide (someone) with a cope or cloak" is attested from late 14c., and in the architectural sense of "to form a cope, bend as an arch or vault" it is recorded from 1660s. Coping saw, used for cutting curved patterns, is attested by 1887.

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Stockholm 
capital city of Sweden; it arose mid-13c. from a fishing village; the second element in the name is holm "island" (see holm); the first is either stäk "bay" or stock "stake, pole." Related: Stockholmer.

Stockholm Syndrome is from 1978, a psychologists' term; the name derives from the Aug. 23, 1973, violent armed robbery of Sveriges Kreditbank in Stockholm, after which four bank employees were held hostage in a vault for more than five days. The hostages developed a dramatic attachment to their abuser, and a fear of would-be rescuers, that they could not explain.
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enceinte (adj.)

"pregnant, with child," c. 1600, insente, from French enceinte "pregnant" (12c.), from Late Latin incincta (source of Italian incinta), explained by Isidore of Seville (7c.) as "ungirt," from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)), + cincta, fem. of cinctus, past participle of cingere "to gird" (see cinch). But the Late Latin word is more likely from Latin inciens "pregnant," from in- (2) "in, into" + second element from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole." Modern form is from 18c., perhaps a reborrowing from French.

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decoy (n.)

1610s, "a swindler;" 1650s, "anything intended to lead (someone) into a snare;" 1660s, "a lure employed in enticing game into a snare or within range of a weapon;" perhaps from Dutch kooi "cage," used of a pond surrounded by nets, into which wildfowl were lured for capture, from West Germanic *kaiwa, from Latin cavea "cage" (from cavus "a hollow" (from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole").

The first element is possibly the Dutch definite article de, mistaken in English as part of the word. If this is right, the later sense in English is the etymological one. But decoy, of unknown origin, was the name of a card game popular c. 1550-1650, and this may have influenced the form of the word.

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firmament (n.)

mid-13c., from Old French firmament or directly from Latin firmamentum "firmament," literally "a support, a strengthening," from firmus "strong, steadfast, enduring" (from suffixed form of PIE root *dher- "to hold firmly, support" ).

Used in Late Latin in the Vulgate to translate Greek stereoma "firm or solid structure," which translated Hebrew raqia, a word used of both the vault of the sky and the floor of the earth in the Old Testament, probably literally "expanse," from raqa "to spread out," but in Syriac meaning "to make firm or solid," hence the erroneous translation. Related: Firmamental.

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*keue- 
*keuə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to swell," also "vault, hole."

It forms all or part of: accumulate; accumulation; cave; cavern; cavity; coeliac; church; codeine; coelacanth; coeliac; coelomate; concave; cumulate; cumulative; cumulus; enceinte; excavate; kirk; kymatology; Kyrie eleison.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit svayati "swells up, is strong;" Greek kyein "to swell," koilos "hollow, hollowed out, spacious, deep;" Latin cumulus "a heap, pile, mass, surplus;" Lithuanian šaunas "firm, solid, fit, capable;" Middle Irish cua "hollow;" Armenian soyl "cavity."
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