"to drive or urge irresistibly by physical or moral force," mid-14c., from Old French compellir and directly from Latin compellere "to drive together, drive to one place" (of cattle), "to force or compel" (of persons), from com "with, together" (see com-) + pellere "to drive" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive"). Related: Compelled; compelling.
mid-15c., "now, present, of the moment, current," from Old French instant "near, imminent, immediate, at hand; urgent, assiduous" (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin instantem (nominative instans), in classical Latin "present, pressing, urgent," literally "standing near," present participle of instare "to urge, to stand near, be present (to urge one's case)," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."
Sense of "immediate, done or occurring at once" is from 1590s. Of processed foods, by 1912; instant coffee is from 1915. Televised sports instant replay attested by 1965. Instant messaging attested by 1994.
early 15c., instigaccioun, "urging, incitement; impelling force," from Old French instigacion "instigation," and directly from Latin instigationem (nominative instigatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of instigare "urge on, incite," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + *stigare, a root meaning "to prick," from PIE root *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce" (see stick (v.)).
"one who advocates the contrary side," 1760, translating Latin advocatus diaboli, in the Catholic Church, a promoter of the faith and officer of the Sacred Congregation of Rites whose job it is to urge against the canonization of a candidate for sainthood. "[F]ar from being the whitewasher of the wicked, the [devil's advocate] is the blackener of the good." [Fowler]. Said to have been first employed in connection with the beatification of St. Lorenzo Giustiniani under Leo X (1513-21).
late 14c., recommenden, "praise, present as worthy; commit (to another) for care or protection," from Medieval Latin recommendare, from Latin re-, here perhaps an intensive prefix, or else from a sense now obscure (see re-), + commendare "commit to one's care, commend" (see commend). Meaning "advise as to action, urge" (that something be done) is from 1746. Related: Recommended; recommending.
late 14c., exhortacioun, "incitement by means of argument, appeal, or admonition; the argument or appeal made," from Old French exhortacion and directly from Latin exhortationem (nominative exhortatio) "an exhortation, encouragement," noun of action from past-participle stem of exhortari "to exhort, encourage," from ex- "thoroughly" (see ex-) + hortari "encourage, urge" (from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want"). From early 15c. as "speech for the purpose of exhortation."