Etymology
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anastrophe (n.)

"inversion of usual word order," 1570s, from Greek anastrophē "a turning back, a turning upside down," from anastrephein "to turn up, turn back, turn upside-down," from ana "back" (see ana-) + strephein "to turn" (from PIE root *streb(h)- "to wind, turn").

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advert (v.)

mid-15c., averten "to turn (something) aside" (the mind, the attention, etc.), from Old French avertir (later advertir) "to turn, direct; turn aside; make aware, inform" (12c.), from Latin advertere "turn toward, turn to," from ad "toward" (see ad-) + vertere "to turn" (see versus). The -d- was restored in English 16c. Especially in speaking or writing, "turn to (a topic) abruptly and plainly" (18c.). Related: Adverted; adverting.

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versed (adj.)

"practiced, conversant, acquainted," c. 1600, from past participle of obsolete verse "to turn over" (a book, subject, etc.) in study or investigation, from French verser "to turn, revolve" as in meditation (12c.), from Latin versare "be employed, busy oneself," literally "to turn to, turn often; think over," frequentative of vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend").

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attorn (v.)

late 13c., Anglo-French, "to turn over to another," from Old French atorner "to turn, turn to, assign, attribute, dispose," from a- "to" (see ad-) + tourner "to turn," from Latin tornare "to turn on a lathe," from tornus "lathe," from Greek tornos "lathe, tool for drawing circles" (from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn"). In feudal law, "to transfer homage or allegiance to another lord."

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evert (v.)

1530s, "to overthrow, subvert," from Latin evertere "turn out, turn over, overthrow," from assimilated form of ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend"). By 1804 as "turn outward or inside out." Related: Everted; everting; eversive.

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vault (v.1)

"jump or leap over," especially by aid of the hands or a pole, 1530s, transitive (implied in vaulting); 1560s, intransitive, from French volter "to gambol, leap," from Italian voltare "to turn," from Vulgar Latin *volvitare "to turn, leap," frequentative of Latin volvere "to turn, turn around, roll" (from PIE root *wel- (3) "to turn, revolve"). Related: Vaulted; vaulting.

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convert (v.)

c. 1300, "a change or turn from one religion to another," especially to Christianity, from Old French convertir "to turn around, turn towards; change, transform; convert, win over," from Vulgar Latin *convertire, from Latin convertere "turn around, transform," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend").

The Latin verb was glossed in Old English by gecyrren, from cierran "to turn, return." General sense of "change into another form or substance, transmute" is from late 14c. Transitive sense of "turn from one use or destination to another" is from late 15c. Related: Converted; converting.

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introvert (v.)

"turn within, direct inward," 1650s, from Latin intro "inward, within" (see intro-) + vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend").

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avert (v.)

mid-15c., transitive, "turn (something) away, cause to turn away," from Old French avertir "turn, direct; avert; make aware" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *advertire, from Latin avertere "to turn away; to drive away; shun; ward off; alienate," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend"). The meaning "ward off, prevent the occurrence of" is from 1610s. Related: Averted; averting.

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reverse (v.)

early 14c., reversen, (transitive), "change, alter" (a sense now obsolete); late 14c., "turn (someone or something) in an opposite direction, turn the other way, turn inside out," also in a general sense, "alter to the opposite;" from Old French reverser "reverse, turn around; roll, turn up" (12c.), from Late Latin reversare "turn about, turn back," frequentative of Latin revertere "turn back, turn about; come back, return" (see revert).

From c. 1400 as "turn (something) upside down;" from early 15c. as "go backward" (intransitive). Of judicial sentences, "set aside, make void," mid-15c. In mechanics, "cause to revolve or act in a contrary direction," by 1860; the sense of "put a motor vehicle in reverse gear" is by 1902. Related: Reversed; reversing.

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