Etymology
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caudate (adj.)

"having a tail," c. 1600, from Modern Latin caudatus, from Latin cauda "tail of an animal," which is of unknown origin. Related: Caudation.

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swallowtail (n.)
also swallow-tail, 1540s as a type of arrowhead, from swallow (n.1) + tail (n.). Of a type of butterfly, by 1776; of a type of coat, 1835. As an adjective from 1590s. The bird's tail is long and deeply forked.
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arse (n.)

"buttocks, hinder part of an animal," Old English ærs "tail, rump," from Proto-Germanic *arsoz (source also of Old Saxon, Old High German, Old Norse ars, Middle Dutch ærs, German Arsch "buttock"), from PIE root *ors- "buttock, backside" (source also of Greek orros "tail, rump, base of the spine," Hittite arrash, Armenian or "buttock," Old Irish err "tail").

To hang the arse "be reluctant or tardy" is from 1630s. Middle English had arse-winning "money obtained by prostitution" (late 14c.). To turn arse over tip is attested by 1884, along with the alternative arse over tit.

Every scrap of Latin Lord Edgecumbe heard at the Encaenia at Oxford he translated ridiculously; one of the themes was Ars Musica : he Englished it Bumfiddle. [Horace Walpole to the Countess of Upper Ossory, Aug. 9, 1773]
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redtail (n.)

also red-tail, 1812 in reference to a type of North American hawk; earlier used of various smaller European birds with red tail feathers (1550s, compare redstart); from red (adj.1) + tail (n.). Related: Red-tailed (c. 1600).

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muggle (n.2)

c. 1200, "a fish-tail," also, apparently, "a person with a fish-tail" (only as a surname), a word of uncertain origin, perhaps from Latin mugil "mullet."

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adulation (n.)

"servile or insincere praise," late 14c., from Old French adulacion, from Latin adulationem (nominative adulatio) "a fawning; flattery, cringing courtesy," noun of action from past-participle stem of adulari "to flatter, fawn upon."

This is usually said to be from ad "to" (see ad-) + a stem meaning "tail," from a PIE *ul- "the tail" (source also of Sanskrit valah "tail-hair," and Lithuanian valai "horse's tail"). The original notion would be "to wag the tail" like a fawning dog (compare Greek sainein "to wag the tail," also "to flatter;" also see wheedle).

But de Vaan finds phonetic problems with these and concludes the etymology is uncertain, though he proposes a connection with avidus "eager," via *adulo- "who is eager toward something," hence "a flatterer." Adulation may proceed from true blind worship or be insincere, from hope of advantage.

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dovetail (n.)

also dove-tail, 1580s, in carpentry, "tenon cut in the form of a reverse wedge," the strongest of all fastenings, from dove (n.) + tail (n.). So called from resemblance of shape in the tenon or mortise of the joints to that of the bird's tail display. As a verb, "to unite by dovetail tenons," 1650s; figuratively "unite closely, as if by dovetails." Related: Dovetailed.

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pintail (n.)

type of duck, 1767, from pin (n.) + tail (n.); so called from the peculiarity of the tail (narrow with long central feathers). In Middle English it is given once (c. 1300) as an epithet for the hare.

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yellowtail (n.)
type of fish, 1709, from yellow (adj.) + tail (n.).
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