Etymology
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shanty (n.1)

"rough cabin, hut, mean dwelling," 1820, said to be from Canadian French chantier "lumberjack's headquarters," in French, "timber-yard, dock," from Old French chantier "gantry," from Latin cantherius "rafter, frame" (see gantry). Shanty Irish in reference to the Irish underclass in the U.S., is from 1928 (title of a book by Jim Tully).

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sawyer (n.)

mid-13c. sawer, sauere, "one whose occupation is the sawing of timber into planks, boards, etc." (as a surname from c. 1200), agent noun from saw (v.). Altered to the modern form after late 13c. by French and French-derived words in -ier (such as lawyer, bowyer, clothier).

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carpentry (n.)
late 14c., "art of cutting, framing, and joining woodwork," carpentrie, from Old French carpenterie, charpenterie "carpentry" (Modern French charpenterie); see from carpenter + -ery. Latin carpentaria (fabrica) meant "carriage-maker's (workshop)," in Medieval Latin "carpenter's shop." From 1550s as "timber-work made by a carpenter."
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raft (n.1)

late 15c., "floating platform of timber lashed or fastened together," from earlier meaning "rafter, beam" (c. 1300), from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse raptr "log" (Old Norse -pt- pronounced as -ft-), Old Danish raft, related to Middle Low German rafter, rachter "rafter" (see rafter (n.1)).

In North America, rafts are constructed of immense size, and comprise timber, boards, staves, etc. They are floated down from the interior to the tide-waters, being propelled by the force of the current, assisted by large oars and sails, to their place of destination. The men employed on these rafts construct rude huts upon them, in which they often dwell for several weeks before arriving at the places where they are taken to pieces for shipping to foreign parts. [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 2nd ed., 1859]
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cantilever (n.)
"projecting block or bracket from a building supporting a molding, balcony, etc.," 1660s, probably from cant (n.2) + lever, but earliest form (c. 1610) was cantlapper. First element also might be Spanish can "dog," architect's term for an end of timber jutting out of a wall, on which beams rested. Related: Cantilevered.
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turnpike (n.)
early 15c., "spiked road barrier used for defense," from turn + pike (n.2) "shaft." Sense transferred to "horizontal cross of timber, turning on a vertical pin" (1540s), which were used to bar horses from foot roads. This led to the sense of "barrier to stop passage until a toll is paid" (1670s). Meaning "road with a toll gate" is from 1748, shortening of turnpike road (1745).
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snape (v.)
also sneap, "to be hard upon, rebuke, revile, snub," early 14c., from Old Norse sneypa "to outrage, dishonor, disgrace," probably related to similar-sounding words meaning "cut" (compare snip (v.)). Verbal meaning "bevel the end (of a timber) to fit an inclined surface" is of uncertain origin or connection. Snaiping "rebuking, reproaching, reviling" is attested from early 14c. Shakespeare has sneaped birds, annoyed by a late frost ("Rape of Lucrere").
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chevron (n.)

late 14c., in heraldry, "a device in the shape of an inverted V," from Old French chevron "rafter; chevron" (13c.), so called because it looks like rafters of a shallow roof, from Vulgar Latin *caprione, from Latin caper "goat" (see cab); the hypothetical connection between goats and rafters being the animal's angular hind legs. Compare gambrel, also Latin capreolus "props, stays, short pieces of timber for support," literally "wild goat, chamoix."

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wood (n.)
Old English wudu, earlier widu "tree, trees collectively, forest, grove; the substance of which trees are made," from Proto-Germanic *widu- (source also of Old Norse viðr, Danish and Swedish ved "tree, wood," Old High German witu "wood"), from PIE *widhu- "tree, wood" (source also of Welsh gwydd "trees," Gaelic fiodh- "wood, timber," Old Irish fid "tree, wood"). Out of the woods "safe" is from 1792.
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sill (n.)
Old English syll "beam, threshold, large timber serving as a foundation of a wall," from Proto-Germanic *suljo (source also of Old Norse svill, Swedish syll, Danish syld "framework of a building," Middle Low German sull, Old High German swelli, German Schwelle "sill"), perhaps from PIE root *swel- (3) "post, board" (source also of Greek selma "beam"). Meaning "lower horizontal part of a window opening" is recorded from early 15c.
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