Etymology
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anomie (n.)
"absence of accepted social values," 1915, in reference to Durkheim, who gave the word its modern meaning in social theory in French; a reborrowing with French spelling of anomy.
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carminative (adj.)

"expelling or having the quality of expelling flatulence," early 15c., from Latin carminativus, from past participle stem of carminare "to card," from carmen, genitive carminis, "a card for wool or flax," which is related to carrere "to card" (see card (v.2)).

A medical term from the old theory of humours. The object of carminatives is to expel wind, but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises, combing them out like knots in wool. [Hensleigh Wedgwood, "A Dictionary of English Etymology," 1859]

As a noun from 1670s.

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environmentalism (n.)
1923, as a psychological theory (in the nature vs. nurture debate), from environmental + -ism. The ecological sense is from 1972. Related: Environmentalist (n.), 1916 in the psychological sense, 1970 in the ecological sense.
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nugget (n.)

1852, "lump of gold," probably from southwestern England dialectal nug "lump," a word of unknown origin [OED]. Another theory is that it is from a misdivision of an ingot. Transferred sense (of truth, etc.) is from 1859.

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verism (n.)
"the theory that art and literature should strictly reproduce truth," 1892, from Italian verismo, from vero "truth," from Latin verus "true" (from PIE root *were-o- "true, trustworthy") + -ismo, Italian form of -ism.
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polygeny (n.)

1864, in anthropology, "the doctrine that the human race is not one but consists of many distinct species" (opposed to monogeny or monogenism), from Late Greek polygenēs "of many kinds," from polys "many" (see poly-) + -genēs "born" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). By c. 1970 the same word was used in a different sense, in reference to the theory that multiple genes contribute to the form or variant of some particular trait of an organism. Another word for the anthropological theory was polygenism (1857).

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thermodynamics (n.)
theory of relationship between heat and mechanical energy, 1854, from thermodynamic (adj.); also see -ics. "The consideration of moving forces, though suggested by the form of the word, does not enter into the subject to any considerable extent" [Century Dictionary].
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collectivism (n.)

1880, in socialist theory, "the principle of centralization of social and economic power in the people collectively" (opposed to individualism), from collective + -ism. Related: Collectivist (1882 as both noun and adjective); collectivization (1890).

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naturopathy (n.)

"a theory of diseases that supposes they may be cured by natural agencies," 1901, a hybrid from combining form of nature + -pathy. A correct formation from all-Greek elements would be *physiopathy. Naturepathy is attested by 1869. Related: Naturopath.

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pluralism (n.)

1818, as a term in church administration, "the holding by one person of two or more offices at the same time," from plural + -ism. Attested from 1882 as a term in philosophy for a theory which recognizes more than one ultimate principle. In political science, attested from 1919 (in Harold J. Laski) in the sense of "theory which opposes monolithic state power." General sense of "toleration of diversity within a society or state" is from 1933. Related: Pluralist (1620s, in the church sense); pluralistic.

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