Etymology
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carminative (adj.)

"expelling or having the quality of expelling flatulence," early 15c., from Latin carminativus, from past participle stem of carminare "to card," from carmen, genitive carminis, "a card for wool or flax," which is related to carrere "to card" (see card (v.2).

A medical term from the old theory of humours. The object of carminatives is to expel wind, but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises, combing them out like knots in wool. [Hensleigh Wedgwood, "A Dictionary of English Etymology," 1859]

As a noun from 1670s.

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verism (n.)
"the theory that art and literature should strictly reproduce truth," 1892, from Italian verismo, from vero "truth," from Latin verus "true" (from PIE root *were-o- "true, trustworthy") + -ismo, Italian form of -ism.
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thermodynamics (n.)
theory of relationship between heat and mechanical energy, 1854, from thermodynamic (adj.); also see -ics. "The consideration of moving forces, though suggested by the form of the word, does not enter into the subject to any considerable extent" [Century Dictionary].
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nugget (n.)

1852, "lump of gold," probably from southwestern England dialectal nug "lump," a word of unknown origin [OED]. Another theory is that it is from a misdivision of an ingot. Transferred sense (of truth, etc.) is from 1859.

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polygeny (n.)

1864, in anthropology, "the doctrine that the human race is not one but consists of many distinct species" (opposed to monogeny or monogenism), from Late Greek polygenēs "of many kinds," from polys "many" (see poly-) + -genēs "born" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). By c. 1970 the same word was used in a different sense, in reference to the theory that multiple genes contribute to the form or variant of some particular trait of an organism. Another word for the anthropological theory was polygenism (1857).

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naturopathy (n.)

"a theory of diseases that supposes they may be cured by natural agencies," 1901, a hybrid from combining form of nature + -pathy. A correct formation from all-Greek elements would be *physiopathy. Naturepathy is attested by 1869. Related: Naturopath.

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collectivism (n.)

1880, in socialist theory, "the principle of centralization of social and economic power in the people collectively" (opposed to individualism), from collective + -ism. Related: Collectivist (1882 as both noun and adjective); collectivization (1890).

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pluralism (n.)

1818, as a term in church administration, "the holding by one person of two or more offices at the same time," from plural + -ism. Attested from 1882 as a term in philosophy for a theory which recognizes more than one ultimate principle. In political science, attested from 1919 (in Harold J. Laski) in the sense of "theory which opposes monolithic state power." General sense of "toleration of diversity within a society or state" is from 1933. Related: Pluralist (1620s, in the church sense); pluralistic.

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Copernicus 

Latinized form of name of Mikolaj Koppernigk (1473-1543), Prussian Polish physician and canon of the cathedral of Frauenburg who promulgated the theory that the Earth and the planets revolve about the sun. His great work was "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium." Related: Copernican (1660s).

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conspiracy (n.)

mid-14c., "a plotting of evil, unlawful design; a combination of persons for an evil purpose," from Anglo-French conspiracie, Old French conspiracie "conspiracy, plot," from Latin conspirationem (nominative conspiratio) "agreement, union, unanimity," noun of action from past-participle stem of conspirare "to agree, unite, plot," literally "to breathe together" (see conspire).

Earlier in same sense was conspiration (early 14c.), from French conspiration (13c.), from Latin conspirationem. An Old English word for it was facengecwis.

Conspiracy theory "explanation of an event or situation involving unwarranted belief that it is caused by a conspiracy among powerful forces" emerged in mid-20c. (by 1937) and figures in the writings of, or about, Charles Beard, Hofstadter, Veblen, etc., but the degree of paranoia and unreasonableness implied in each use is not always easy to discern. The phrase was used from 19c. in a non-pejorative sense "the theory that a (certain) conspiracy exists," especially in court cases. Its use in general reference to theories of hidden cabals pulling wires behind the scenes of national or global events is by 1871.

We shall better understand the ensuing civil war if we study the movements in the four most important of these States, in relation to a theory which asserts that the secession was a conspiracy whose central cabal, composed of Southern senators and representatives in Washington, dictated through its ramifications in the States the inception and the course of the revolution. [James Ford Rhodes, page headed "The Conspiracy Theory" in "History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850," New York, 1893]
To the Jingo Imperialist "the South African Conspiracy" is the alleged Dutch conspiracy to drive the British into the sea. But, to the man accustomed to weigh evidence and to base his opinions on ascertained facts, it is clear that this conspiracy theory is absolutely untenable, for whatever "evidence" has been adduced in support of the theory is nebulous and shadowy in the extreme. ["The South African Conspiracy," in The Westminster Review, January 1902]
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