Etymology
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tense (n.)
"form of a verb showing time of an action or state," early 14c., tens "time," also "tense of a verb" (late 14c.), from Old French tens "time, period of time, era; occasion, opportunity; weather" (11c., Modern French temps), from Latin tempus "a portion of time" (also source of Spanish tiempo, Italian tempo; see temporal).
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petrous (adj.)

c. 1400, in anatomy, "very hard, dense," from Old French petros (Modern French petreux) and directly from Latin petrosus "stony," from petra "rock," from Greek petra "rock, cliff, ledge, shelf of rock, rocky ridge," a word of unknown etymology (Beekes says it is "probably Pre-Greek"). Used of certain bones, especially of parts of the temporal bone.

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abdominal (adj.)

"pertaining to the abdomen, ventral," 1550s, from medical Latin abdominalis, from abdomen (genitive abdominis); see abdomen. As a noun, "abdominal muscle," by 1961 (earlier "abdominal vein," 1928);  earlier as a fish of the order including carp, salmon, and herring (1835), so called for their ventral fins. Related: Abdominally. English in 17c. had abdominous "big-bellied."

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temporary (adj.)
"lasting only for a time," 1540s, from Latin temporarius "of seasonal character, lasting a short time," from tempus (genitive temporis) "time, season" (see temporal, late 14c., which was the earlier word for "lasting but for a time"). The noun meaning "person employed only for a time" is recorded from 1848. Related: Temporarily; temporariness.
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temporize (v.)

"to comply with the times; to yield ostensibly to the current of opinion or circumstances," 1550s (implied in temporizer), from French temporiser "to pass one's time, wait one's time" (14c.), from Medieval Latin temporizare "pass time," perhaps via Vulgar Latin *temporare "to delay," from Latin tempus (genitive temporis) "time" (see temporal). Related: Temporized; temporizing.

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terran (adj.)
"of or pertaining to the planet Earth," 1881, in science fiction writing, from Latin terra "earth" (from PIE root *ters- "to dry"). Also used as a noun meaning "inhabitant of the Earth" (1953). An earlier form, terrene was used in Middle English in sense of "belonging to this world, earthly, secular, temporal" (c. 1300), later, "of the Earth as a planet" (1630s).
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extempore (adv.)
1550s, from Latin phrase ex tempore "offhand, in accordance with (the needs of) the moment," literally "out of time," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + tempore, ablative of tempus (genitive temporis) "time" (see temporal). Of speaking, strictly "without preparation, without time to prepare," but now often with a sense merely of "without notes or a teleprompter." As an adjective and noun from 1630s.
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contemporary (adj.)

1630s, "occurring, living, or existing at the same time, belonging to the same age or period," from Medieval Latin contemporarius, from assimilated form of Latin com "with, together" (see con-) + temporarius "of time," from tempus "time, season, portion of time" (see temporal (adj.)). Form cotemporary was common in 18c. Meaning "modern, characteristic of the present" (in reference to art, literature, etc.) is from 1805.

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contretemps (n.)

1680s, "a blunder in fencing," from French contre-temps "motion out of time, unfortunate accident, bad times" (16c.), from contre, an occasional, obsolete variant of contra (prep.) "against" (from Latin contra "against;" see contra (prep., adv.)) + tempus "time" (see temporal).

Meaning "an unfortunate accident, an unexpected or embarrassing event" is from 1802; as "a dispute, disagreement," from 1961. It also was used as a ballet term (1706).

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secularism (n.)

"exclusive attention to the present life and its duties; doctrine that morality should be based on the well-being of man in the present life, without regard to religious belief or a hereafter," 1843, from secular + -ism.

Secularity (late 14c., seculerte ) was used for "civil or temporal power, the business of layman life; quality or condition of being secular" (from Old French secularite and Medieval Latin sæcularitas).

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