c. 1400, in anatomy, "very hard, dense," from Old French petros (Modern French petreux) and directly from Latin petrosus "stony," from petra "rock," from Greek petra "rock, cliff, ledge, shelf of rock, rocky ridge," a word of unknown etymology (Beekes says it is "probably Pre-Greek"). Used of certain bones, especially of parts of the temporal bone.
"pertaining to the abdomen, ventral," 1550s, from medical Latin abdominalis, from abdomen (genitive abdominis); see abdomen. As a noun, "abdominal muscle," by 1961 (earlier "abdominal vein," 1928); earlier as a fish of the order including carp, salmon, and herring (1835), so called for their ventral fins. Related: Abdominally. English in 17c. had abdominous "big-bellied."
"to comply with the times; to yield ostensibly to the current of opinion or circumstances," 1550s (implied in temporizer), from French temporiser "to pass one's time, wait one's time" (14c.), from Medieval Latin temporizare "pass time," perhaps via Vulgar Latin *temporare "to delay," from Latin tempus (genitive temporis) "time" (see temporal). Related: Temporized; temporizing.
1630s, "occurring, living, or existing at the same time, belonging to the same age or period," from Medieval Latin contemporarius, from assimilated form of Latin com "with, together" (see con-) + temporarius "of time," from tempus "time, season, portion of time" (see temporal (adj.)). Form cotemporary was common in 18c. Meaning "modern, characteristic of the present" (in reference to art, literature, etc.) is from 1805.
1680s, "a blunder in fencing," from French contre-temps "motion out of time, unfortunate accident, bad times" (16c.), from contre, an occasional, obsolete variant of contra (prep.) "against" (from Latin contra "against;" see contra (prep., adv.)) + tempus "time" (see temporal).
Meaning "an unfortunate accident, an unexpected or embarrassing event" is from 1802; as "a dispute, disagreement," from 1961. It also was used as a ballet term (1706).
"exclusive attention to the present life and its duties; doctrine that morality should be based on the well-being of man in the present life, without regard to religious belief or a hereafter," 1843, from secular + -ism.
Secularity (late 14c., seculerte ) was used for "civil or temporal power, the business of layman life; quality or condition of being secular" (from Old French secularite and Medieval Latin sæcularitas).