Etymology
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Pollux 

twin brother of Castor (q.v.), hence also the name of the beta star of Gemini (though slightly brighter than Castor), 1520s, from Latin, from Greek Polydeukēs, literally "very sweet," or "much sweet wine," from polys "much" (from PIE root *pele- (1) "to fill") + deukēs "sweet" (prom PIE *dleuk-; see glucose). The contraction of the name in Latin is perhaps via Etruscan [Klein].

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licorice (n.)

type of leguminous plant, the dried roots of which were anciently used as a medicine and as a sweet, also liquorice, c. 1200, licoriz, from Anglo-French lycoryc, Old French licorece (also recolice), from Late Latin liquiritia, alteration of Latin glychyrrhiza, from Greek glykyrrhiza, literally "sweet root," from glykys "sweet" (see gluco-) + rhiza "root" (from PIE root *wrād- "branch, root"); form influenced in Latin by liquere "become fluid," because of the method of extracting the sweet stuff from the root. French réglisse, Italian regolizia are the same word, with metathesis of -l- and -r-.

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billet-doux (n.)
also billet doux, 1670s, "short love letter," French, literally "sweet note," from billet "document, note" (14c., diminutive of bille "a writing, a list, a seal;" see bill (n.1)) + doux "sweet," from Latin dulcis (see dulcet).
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glyco- 
before vowels glyc-, word-forming element meaning "sweet," from Latinized combining form of Greek glykys, glykeros "sweet" (see gluco-). Used in reference to sugars generally. OED says a regular formation would be glycy-.
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Dubonnet (n.)

sweet French aperitif, by 1901, trademark name, from the name of a family of French wine merchants.

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seed-cake (n.)

"sweet cake containing aromatic seeds," originally and typically caraway seeds, 1570s, from seed (n.) + cake (n.).

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aroma (n.)
early 13c., "fragrant substance, spice" (a sense now obsolete), from Latin aroma "sweet odor," from Greek aroma "seasoning, a spice or sweet herb," which is of unknown origin. Meaning "fragrance, odor," especially an agreeable one, is from 1814. A hypercorrect plural is aromata. Related: Aromal.
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hypoglycemia (n.)
1893, from Latinized form of Greek elements hypo- "under" (see hypo-) + glykys "sweet" (see glucose) + haima "blood" (see -emia).
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glycerin (n.)

also glycerine, thick, colorless syrup, 1838, from French glycérine, coined by French chemist Michel-Eugène Chevreul (1786-1889), from glycero- "sweet" (see glyco-) + chemical ending -ine (2). So called for its sweet taste. Still in popular use, but in chemistry the substance now is known as glycerol.

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dolce far niente 

"pleasing inactivity, sweet idleness," 1814, from Italian, literally "sweet doing nothing." The Latin roots are dulcis "sweet" (see dulcet), facere "to make, do" (see factitious), and nec entem, literally "not a being."

This phrase, frequent enough in English literature, does not seem to occur in any Italian author of note. Howells says that he found it current among Neapolitan lazzaroni, but it is not included in any collection of Italian proverbial sayings. [Walsh]
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