late 14c., "component substance, matter from which a thing is made," from material (adj.).
c. 1200, "doctrine, authoritative teaching; an authoritative pronouncement," from Old French sentence "judgment, decision; meaning; aphorism, maxim; statement of authority" (12c.) and directly from Latin sententia "thought, way of thinking, opinion; judgment, decision," also "a thought expressed; aphorism, saying," an irregular (dissimilated) formation from sentientem, present participle of sentire "be of opinion, feel, perceive" (see sense (n.)). The meaning path is perhaps "way of perceiving in the mind" to "opinion" to "decision, judgment."
From early 14c. as "judgment rendered by God, or by one in authority;" also in the specific legal sense "a verdict, decision in a court." It is from late 14c. as "understanding, wisdom; edifying subject matter," a sense obsolete but frequent in Chaucer.
It is from late 14c. as "subject matter or content of a letter, book, speech, etc.," and also was used in reference to a passage in a written work. The sense of "grammatically complete statement in words" is attested from mid-15c. ("Meaning," then "meaning expressed in words.")
A sentence is a sound in itself on which other sounds called words may be strung. You may string words together without a sentence-sound to string them on just as you may tie clothes together by the sleeves and stretch them without a clothes line between two trees, but — it is bad for the clothes. [Robert Frost, letter to John T. Bartlett, Feb. 22, 1914]
a word used in philosophy and metaphysics of systems of thought which deduce all phenomena from a single principle (1832); also "the doctrine that only one being exists" (1862), from German Monism (by 1818) or directly from Modern Latin monismus, from Greek monos "alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated"); also see -ism. First used in German by German philosopher Baron Christian von Wolff (1679-1754), who applied it to those who deny the substantiality either of mind or matter. Fowler defines it as "any view of that makes the universe consist of mind with matter as a form of mind, or of matter with mind as a form of matter, or of a substance that in every part of it is neither mind nor matter but both," and writes that it is a contrast to dualism.
1660s, of persons, "cultured, refined, educated;" 1797, of land, "subject to cultivation;" past-participle adjective from cultivate (v.).
group of volcanic islands off the northwest coast of Africa, from Portuguese madeira "wood," because the main island formerly was thickly wooded, from Latin materia "wood, matter" (see matter (n.)). As a type of fine wine of the sherry class, 1540s, from the island, where it was produced.