Etymology
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emotion (n.)

1570s, "a (social) moving, stirring, agitation," from French émotion (16c.), from Old French emouvoir "stir up" (12c.), from Latin emovere "move out, remove, agitate," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + movere "to move" (from PIE root *meue- "to push away"). Sense of "strong feeling" is first recorded 1650s; extended to any feeling by 1808.

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apagoge (n.)
"demonstration of a proposition by the refutation of its opposite, indirect proof, reductio ad absurdum," from Greek apagoge "a leading away" (used by Aristotle in a logical sense), from apagein "to lead away," from assimilated form of apo "from, away from" (see apo-) + agein "push forward, put in motion; stir up; excite, urge," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move." Related: Apogogic (1670s); apogogical.
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rally (n.)

1650s, in military language, "a rapid regrouping for renewed action after a repulse," from rally (v.1). Sense of "a mass meeting to stir enthusiasm" is attested by 1840, American English. Sense of "gathering of automobile enthusiasts" is from 1932, from French rallye, itself from the English noun. Sports sense of "long series of hits from one side to the other" in tennis, etc., is from 1881, earlier "series of back-and-forth blows in a boxing match" (1825).

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cite (v.)

mid-15c., "to summon, call upon officially," from Old French citer "to summon" (14c.), from Latin citare "to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite," frequentative of ciere "to move, set in motion, stir, rouse, call, invite" from PIE root *keie- "to set in motion, to move to and fro."

Sense of "call forth a passage of writing, quote the words of another" is first attested 1530s. Related: Cited; citing.

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broil (v.2)
early 15c., "to quarrel, brawl," also "mix up, present in disorder," from Anglo-French broiller "mix up, confuse," Old French brooillier "to mix, mingle," figuratively "to have sexual intercourse" (13c., Modern French brouiller), perhaps from breu, bro "stock, broth, brew," from Frankish or another Germanic source (compare Old High German brod "broth"), from PIE root *bhreu- "to boil, bubble, effervesce, burn." Compare Italian brogliare "to stir, disorder" (see imbroglio).
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agitate (v.)

1580s, "to disturb," from Latin agitatus, past participle of agitare "to put in constant or violent motion, drive onward, impel," frequentative of agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," figuratively "incite to action; keep in movement, stir up" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").

Literal sense of "move to and fro, shake" is from 1590s. Meaning "to discuss, debate" is from 1640s, that of "keep (a political or social question) constantly in public view" is by 1828. Related: Agitated; agitating.

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toil (n.1)
"hard work," c. 1300, originally "turmoil, contention, dispute," from Anglo-French toil (13c.), from toiler "agitate, stir up, entangle, writhe about," from Old French toeillier "drag about, make dirty" (12c.), usually said to be from Latin tudiculare "crush with a small hammer," from tudicula "mill for crushing olives, instrument for crushing," from Latin tudes "hammer," from PIE *tud-, variant of *(s)teu- "to push, stroke, knock, beat" (see obtuse). Sense of "hard work, labor" (1590s) is from the related verb (see toil (v.)).
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remove (v.)

early 14c., remouven, remuvien, remēven, "take (something) away; dismiss" from an office, post or situation; from Old French removoir "move, stir; leave, depart; take away," from Latin removere "move back or away, take away, put out of view, subtract," from re- "back, away" (see re-) + movere "to move" (from PIE root *meue- "to push away").

Sense of "go away, leave, depart, move" from a position occupied is from late 14c.; the intransitive sense of "change (one's) place, move from one place to another" also is from 14c. Related: Removed; removing.

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commotion (n.)

late 14c., "violent movement or agitation, emotional disturbance," from Old French commocion "violent motion, agitation" (12c., Modern French commotion) and directly from Latin commotionem (nominative commotio) "violent motion, agitation," noun of action from past participle stem of commovere "to move, disturb," from com "with, together," perhaps here "thoroughly" (see com-) + movere "to move" (from PIE root *meue- "to push away").

From mid-15c. as "public unrest or disturbance." Verbs commote "to disturb, stir up" (1852), commove (late 14c.) are marked "rare" in Century Dictionary.

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mandible (n.)

late 14c., "jaw, jawbone," from Late Latin mandibula "jaw," from Latin mandere "to chew," which is perhaps from PIE root *mendh- "to chew" (source also of Greek mastax "the mouth, that with which one chews; morsel, that which is chewed," masasthai "to chew," mastikhan "to gnash the teeth"). But de Vaan suggests a semantic development from a PIE root meaning "to stir, whirl," source also of Sanskrit manthanti "to whirl round, rub," Lithuanian mesti "to mix," Old Church Slavonic mesti, Russian mjasti "to trouble, disturb." Of insect mouth parts from 1826.

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