Etymology
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apagoge (n.)
"demonstration of a proposition by the refutation of its opposite, indirect proof, reductio ad absurdum," from Greek apagoge "a leading away" (used by Aristotle in a logical sense), from apagein "to lead away," from assimilated form of apo "from, away from" (see apo-) + agein "push forward, put in motion; stir up; excite, urge," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move." Related: Apogogic (1670s); apogogical.
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rally (n.)

1650s, in military language, "a rapid regrouping for renewed action after a repulse," from rally (v.1). Sense of "a mass meeting to stir enthusiasm" is attested by 1840, American English. Sense of "gathering of automobile enthusiasts" is from 1932, from French rallye, itself from the English noun. Sports sense of "long series of hits from one side to the other" in tennis, etc., is from 1881, earlier "series of back-and-forth blows in a boxing match" (1825).

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cite (v.)

mid-15c., "to summon, call upon officially," from Old French citer "to summon" (14c.), from Latin citare "to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite," frequentative of ciere "to move, set in motion, stir, rouse, call, invite" from PIE root *keie- "to set in motion, to move to and fro."

Sense of "call forth a passage of writing, quote the words of another" is first attested 1530s. Related: Cited; citing.

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broil (v.2)
early 15c., "to quarrel, brawl," also "mix up, present in disorder," from Anglo-French broiller "mix up, confuse," Old French brooillier "to mix, mingle," figuratively "to have sexual intercourse" (13c., Modern French brouiller), perhaps from breu, bro "stock, broth, brew," from Frankish or another Germanic source (compare Old High German brod "broth"), from PIE root *bhreu- "to boil, bubble, effervesce, burn." Compare Italian brogliare "to stir, disorder" (see imbroglio).
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chow mein (n.)

Chinese dish of stir-fried noodles served with sauce, 1898, American English, from Chinese ch'ao mien, said to mean "fried dough."

Whereas the majority of Chinese culinary terms in English have become established since the Second World War, with the rise of the Chinese restaurant, chow mein belongs to an earlier stratum, introduced via the West Coast of America in the early years of the twentieth century, and institutionalized in the 1920s and 1930s as the archetypal Sino-American dish. [Ayto, "Diner's Dictionary"]
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agitate (v.)

1580s, "to disturb," from Latin agitatus, past participle of agitare "to put in constant or violent motion, drive onward, impel," frequentative of agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," figuratively "incite to action; keep in movement, stir up" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").

Literal sense of "move to and fro, shake" is from 1590s. Meaning "to discuss, debate" is from 1640s, that of "keep (a political or social question) constantly in public view" is by 1828. Related: Agitated; agitating.

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toil (n.1)
"hard work," c. 1300, originally "turmoil, contention, dispute," from Anglo-French toil (13c.), from toiler "agitate, stir up, entangle, writhe about," from Old French toeillier "drag about, make dirty" (12c.), usually said to be from Latin tudiculare "crush with a small hammer," from tudicula "mill for crushing olives, instrument for crushing," from Latin tudes "hammer," from PIE *tud-, variant of *(s)teu- "to push, stroke, knock, beat" (see obtuse). Sense of "hard work, labor" (1590s) is from the related verb (see toil (v.)).
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uproar (n.)
1520s, "outbreak of disorder, revolt, commotion," used by Tindale and later Coverdale as a loan-translation of German Aufruhr or Dutch oproer "tumult, riot," literally "a stirring up," in German and Dutch bibles (as in Acts xxi.38). From German auf (Middle Dutch op) "up" (see up (adv.)) + ruhr (Middle Dutch roer) "a stirring, motion," related to Old English hreran "to move, stir, shake" (see rare (adj.2)). Meaning "noisy shouting" is first recorded 1540s, probably by mistaken association with unrelated roar.
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remove (v.)

early 14c., remouven, remuvien, remēven, "take (something) away; dismiss" from an office, post or situation; from Old French removoir "move, stir; leave, depart; take away," from Latin removere "move back or away, take away, put out of view, subtract," from re- "back, away" (see re-) + movere "to move" (from PIE root *meue- "to push away").

Sense of "go away, leave, depart, move" from a position occupied is from late 14c.; the intransitive sense of "change (one's) place, move from one place to another" also is from 14c. Related: Removed; removing.

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commotion (n.)

late 14c., "violent movement or agitation, emotional disturbance," from Old French commocion "violent motion, agitation" (12c., Modern French commotion) and directly from Latin commotionem (nominative commotio) "violent motion, agitation," noun of action from past participle stem of commovere "to move, disturb," from com "with, together," perhaps here "thoroughly" (see com-) + movere "to move" (from PIE root *meue- "to push away").

From mid-15c. as "public unrest or disturbance." Verbs commote "to disturb, stir up" (1852), commove (late 14c.) are marked "rare" in Century Dictionary.

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