1768, "penitence, spiritual conversion," from Greek metanoia "afterthought, repentance," from metanoein "to change one's mind or purpose," from meta, here indicating "change" (see meta-) + noein "to have mental perception," from noos "mind, thought," which is of uncertain origin.
also agha, title of rank, especially in Turkey, c. 1600, from Turkish agha "chief, master, lord," related to East Turkic agha "elder brother." The Agha Khan is the title of the spiritual leader of Nizari Ismaili Muslims.
1620s, from French influx (16c.) or directly from Late Latin influxus "a flowing in," from past participle stem of Latin influere "to flow in" (see influence (n.)). Originally of rivers, air, light, spiritual light, etc.; used of people from 1650s.
"any mode of thought or life in which reliance is placed upon a spiritual illumination believed to transcend ordinary powers of understanding," 1736, from mystic (adj.) + -ism. Often especially in a religious sense, and since the Enlightenment a term of reproach, implying self-delusion or dreamy confusion of thought.
Mysticism and rationalism represent opposite poles of theology, rationalism regarding the reason as the highest faculty of man and the sole arbiter in all matters of religious doctrine; mysticism, on the other hand, declaring that spiritual truth cannot be apprehended by the logical faculty, nor adequately expressed in terms of the understanding. [Century Dictionary]
late 14c. (mid-13c. as a surname), "shepherd, one who has care of a flock or herd" (a sense now obsolete), also figurative, "spiritual guide, shepherd of souls, a Christian minister or clergyman," from Old French pastor, pastur "herdsman, shepherd" (12c.) and directly from Latin pastor "shepherd," from pastus, past participle of pascere "to lead to pasture, set to grazing, cause to eat," from PIE root *pa- "to feed; tend, guard, protect." Compare pasture.
The spiritual sense was in Church Latin (e.g. Gregory's "Cura Pastoralis"). The verb in the Christian sense is from 1872.
also materialisation, 1822, "act of investing with or assuming a material form; a change from a spiritual, ideal, or imaginary state to a state of matter," noun of action from materialize. In spiritualism, "the assumption (by a spirit) of a bodily form," by 1875.
1660s, "action of detaching or disconnecting," from French détachement (17c.), from détacher (see detach). Meaning "that which is detached," especially "portion of a military force detailed for special service or purpose" is from 1670s. Sense of "spiritual separation from the world, aloofness from objects or circumstances" is from 1798.
late 14c., regeneratif, of a medicine "having the power to cause flesh to grow again," from Old French regeneratif or directly from Medieval Latin regenerativus "producing regeneration," from regeneratus, past participle of Latin regenerare "bring forth again" (see regeneration). In a spiritual sense from early 15c.