Etymology
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Lilliputian (adj.)
"diminutive, tiny," literally "pertaining to Lilliput," the fabulous island whose inhabitants were six inches high, a name coined by Jonathan Swift in "Gulliver's Travels" (1726). Swift left no explanation of the origin of the word.
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sestet (n.)

1801, in music, from Italian sestetto, diminutive of sesto "sixth," from Latin sextus (see Sextus). Same as sextet. More usually "the concluding two stanzas (six lines) of a sonnet" (1859).

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Mogen David 

"star of David," six-pointed star, symbol of Judaism or Zionism, 1904, from Hebrew maghen Dawidh "shield of David," king of Judah and Israel, who died c. 973 B.C.E.

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biannual (adj.)
also bi-annual; "occurring every six months, twice a year," 1837; see bi- + annual (adj.). Distinguished in sense from biennial, but the distinction is etymologically arbitrary. Related: Biannually; bi-annually.
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parsec (n.)

interstellar distance measure, 1913, from first elements of parallax second. It is the distance at which an object has parallax (viewed from Earth at an interval of six months and halved) of one second of arc, or about 3.26 light-years.

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siesta (n.)
"mid-day nap," 1650s, from Spanish siesta, from Latin sexta (hora) "sixth (hour)," the noon of the Roman day (coming six hours after sunrise), from sexta, fem. of sextus "sixth" (see Sextus).
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semidiurnal (adj.)

also semi-diurnal, "pertaining to or accomplished in half a day," 1590s, in astronomy, defining the half day as six hours (half the time between the rising and setting of a body); see semi- + diurnal. By 1794 in reference to tides, "occurring every 12 hours."

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fathom (n.)

Old English fæðm "length of the outstretched arms" (a measure of about six feet), also "arms, grasp, embrace," and, figuratively "power," from Proto-Germanic *fathmaz "embrace" (source also of Old Norse faðmr "embrace, bosom," Old Saxon fathmos "the outstretched arms," Dutch vadem "a measure of six feet"), from PIE *pot(ə)-mo-, suffixed form of root *pete- "to spread." It has apparent cognates in Old Frisian fethem, German faden "thread," which OED explains by reference to "spreading out." As a unit of measure, in an early gloss it appears for Latin passus, which was about 5 feet.

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Caucasus (n.)

mountain range between the Black and Caspian seas, separating Europe and the Middle East, from Latin Caucasus, from Greek kaukasis, said by Pliny ("Natural History," book six, chap. XVII) to be from a Scythian word similar to kroy-khasis, literally "(the mountain) ice-shining, white with snow." But possibly from a Pelasgian root *kau- meaning "mountain."

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bionic (adj.)
1901 as a term in the study of fossils, "quality of an organism that repeats its characteristics in successive generations," from Greek bios "life" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live"). Meaning "pertaining to bionics" is recorded from 1963, with ending from electronic. Popular sense of "superhumanly gifted or durable" is from 1976, from U.S. television program "The Six Million Dollar Man" and its spin-offs.
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