Etymology
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*arg- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine; white," hence "silver" as the shining or white metal.

It forms all or part of: argent; Argentina; argentine; Argo; argue; Argus; hydrargyrum; litharge.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit rajata-, Avestan erezata-, Old Persian ardata-, Armenian arcat, Greek arguron, Latin argentum, Old Irish argat, Breton arc'hant "silver;" Sanskrit arjuna- "white, shining;" Hittite harki- "white;" Greek argos "white."

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foliate (v.)

1660s (implied in foliated), "to apply silver leaf," from Medieval Latin foliatus "leaved, leafy," from Latin folium "a leaf" (see folio). Meaning "put forth leaves" is from 1775. Related: Foliated; foliating.

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monometallic (adj.)

1876 in reference to currency, "consisting of but one metal; comprising coins that consist of either gold or silver, but not both," from mono- "single" + metallic. Opposed to bimetallic. In chemistry, from 1861.

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groschen (n.)

1610s, small silver coin formerly used in Germany and Austria, from German groschen, altered from Czech groš, name of a coin (about one-thirtieth of a thaler), from Medieval Latin (denarius) grossus, literally "a thick coin," from Latin grossus "thick" (see gross (adj.), and compare groat).

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brocade (n.)

"silken fabric variegated with gold and silver or otherwise ornamented," 1560s, from Spanish brocado, corresponding to Italian broccato "embossed cloth," originally past participle of broccare "to stud, set with nails," from brocco (Spanish broca) "small nail," from Latin broccus "projecting, pointed" (see broach (n.)).

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tain (n.)

"thin tin plate for mirrors, etc.," 1858, from French tain "tinfoil" (17c.), an alteration of étain "tin," from Latin stagnum, stannum "alloy of silver and lead," in Late Latin "tin" (see stannic).

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bimetallic (adj.)

also bi-metallic, "composed of two metals," 1864; see bi- "two" + metallic. In economics, "pertaining to the use of both silver and gold as standards in currency," 1876, from French bimétalique (Cornuschi).

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krone (n.)

currency unit and silver coin in Scandinavian countries, 1861, from Danish krone (plural kroner), Swedish krona (plural kronor), literally "crown," from Latin (see crown (n.)). Also the name of a 10-mark gold piece issued by the German Empire. So called for the devices stamped on them.

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hallmark (n.)

1721, official stamp of purity in gold and silver articles, from Goldsmiths' Hall in London, site of the assay office; see hall + mark (n.1). General sense of "mark of quality" first recorded 1864. As a verb from 1773.

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plate (n.)

mid-13c., "flat sheet of gold or silver," also "flat, round coin," from Old French plate "thin piece of metal" (late 12c.), from Medieval Latin plata "plate, piece of metal," perhaps via Vulgar Latin *plattus, formed on model of Greek platys "flat, broad" (from PIE root *plat- "to spread"). The cognate in Spanish (plata) and Portuguese (prata) has become the usual word for "silver," superseding argento via a shortening of *plata d'argento "plate of silver, coin."

From 14c. as "armor made of sheets of metal." Meaning "table utensils" (originally of silver or gold only) is from Middle English. Meaning "shallow dish on which food is served at table," now usually of china or earthenware, originally of metal or wood, is from mid-15c. Meaning "articles which have been covered with a plating of precious metal" is from 1540s.

In photography, "common rectangular piece of glass used to receive the picture," by 1840. The baseball sense "home base" is from 1857. Geological sense "nearly rigid part of the earth's lithosphere" is attested from 1904; plate tectonics is attested from 1967. Plate-glass for a superior kind of thick glass used for mirrors, shop-windows, etc., is recorded from 1729.

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