1839 in South African English, rant, "rocky ridge overlooking a river valley," from Afrikaans, from Dutch rand "edge, margin, rim," from Proto-Germanic *randaz "edge, rim, crust" (source also of Old English rand "brink, bank," Old High German rant "border or rim of a shield," German Rand "edge, border, margin," Old Norse rönd "shield-rim, shield," Swedish rand "stripe, edge, verge").
As a unit of currency, adopted by the Republic of South Africa in 1961 (see Krugerrand). Johnson's dictionary has rand "Border; seam: as the rand of a woman's shoe." The Old English cognate survived into Middle English as rand "strip or border of land."
"millionaire, rich person," 1833, in reference to the international banking family descended from Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812) of Frankfurt. The surname is literally "red shield," a German house-name.
late 14c., from Old French escuier "shield-bearer (attendant young man in training to be a knight), groom" (Modern French écuyer), from Medieval Latin scutarius "shield-bearer, guardsman" (in classical Latin, "shield-maker"), from scutum "shield" (see escutcheon). For initial e-, see e-. Compare squire (n.). Originally the feudal rank below knight, sense broadened 16c. to a general title of courtesy or respect for the educated and professional class, especially, later, in U.S., regarded as belonging especially to lawyers.
In our own dear title-bearing, democratic land, the title of esquire, officially and by courtesy, has come to include pretty much everybody. Of course everybody in office is an esquire, and all who have been in office enjoy and glory in the title. And what with a standing army of legislators, an elective and ever-changing magistracy, and almost a whole population of militia officers, present and past, all named as esquires in their commissions, the title is nearly universal. [N.Y. Commercial Advertiser newspaper, quoted in Bartlett, 1859]
"cavity on the summit of a volcano," 1865, from Spanish caldera, literally "cauldron, kettle," from Latin caldarium "hot-bath" (plural caldaria), from caldarius "pertaining to warming," from calidus "warm, hot" (from PIE root *kele- (1) "warm"). A doublet of cauldron.
The term was originally used in describing volcanic regions occurring where Spanish is the current language, and was introduced by Von Buch in his description of the Canaries. [Century Dictionary]
As a noun, it is recorded from 1809 in the sense "outburst, quarrel;" 1807 as "an explosion." Meaning "enlargement from a photograph" is attested by 1945 (the verbal phrase in this sense is by 1930). Old English had an adjective upablawan "upblown," used of a volcano, etc.
"protection," 1793, a figurative use of Latin aegis, from Greek Aigis, the name of the shield of Zeus, a word said by Herodotus to be related to aix (genitive aigos) "goat," from PIE *aig- "goat" (source also of Sanskrit ajah, Lithuanian ožys "he-goat"), as the shield was of goatskin. Athene's aigis was a short goat-skin cloak, set with a gorgon's head and fringed with snakes. The exact use and purpose of it is not now clear.
The goatskin would be worn with the two forelegs tied in front of the wearer's breast, or possibly with the head passed through an opening made at the neck, by the removal of the animal's head. [F. Warre Cornish, ed., "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities," London, 1898]
"distort, warp, bend out of shape" 1520s, bokelen "to arch the body," from French boucler "to bulge," from Old French bocler "to bulge," from bocle "boss of a shield" (see buckle (n.)). Meaning "to bend under strong pressure" is from 1590s (figurative from 1640s) . Related: Buckled; buckling.
member of an ancient people (an offshoot of the Sabines) who inhabited Samnium in Italy, late 14c., from Latin Samnites (plural), from Samnium, which probably is related to Sabine (q.v.). The class of gladiators (distinguished by their oblong shield) was so-called because they were armed like the natives of Samnium.