Etymology
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tycoon (n.)

1857, title given by foreigners to the shogun of Japan (said to have been used by his supporters when addressing foreigners, as an attempt to convey that the shogun was more important than the emperor), from Japanese taikun "great lord or prince," from Chinese tai "great" + kiun "lord." Transferred meaning "important person" is attested from 1861, in reference to U.S. president Abraham Lincoln (in the diary of his secretary, John Hay); specific application to "wealthy and powerful businessman" is post-World War I.

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maidenhood (n.)

"state of being a maiden; state of an unmarried female; virginity," Old English mægdenhad; see maiden (n.) + -hood.

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tomato (n.)

1753, earlier tomate (c. 1600), from Spanish tomate (mid-16c.) from Nahuatl (Aztecan) tomatl "a tomato," said to mean literally "the swelling fruit," from tomana "to swell." Spelling probably influenced by potato (1565). Slang meaning "an attractive girl" is recorded from 1929, on notion of juicy plumpness.

A member of the nightshade family, all of which contain poisonous alkaloids. Introduced in Europe from the New World, by 1550 they regularly were consumed in Italy but grown only as ornamental plants in England and not eaten there or in the U.S. at first. An encyclopedia of 1753 describes it as "a fruit eaten either stewed or raw by the Spaniards and Italians and by the Jew families of England." Introduced in U.S. 1789 as part of a program by then-Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, but not commonly eaten until after c. 1830.

The older English name for it, and the usual one before mid-18c., was love-apple.

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rabidity (n.)

1822, "state of being infected with rabies;" 1825, "state of being furious or violently raving;" see rabid + -ity.

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lowliness (n.)

early 15c., "meek or humble state of mind," from lowly + -ness. From 1590s as "humble state or condition."

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fitness (n.)

1570s, "state or quality of being suitable," from fit (adj.) + -ness. Meaning "state of being physically fit" is from 1935.

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disqualification (n.)

1710s, "that which disqualifies;" 1770, "act of disqualifying; state of being disqualified;" noun of action or state from disqualify.

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raison d'etat (n.)

1869, from French raison d'état "reason of state," thus "convenience of the government." See reason (n.) + state (n.2).

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ripeness (n.)

Old English ripnes "state of being ready for harvest; state of full development;" see ripe (adj.) + -ness.

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instate (v.)

also enstate, "to put someone in a certain state or condition," c. 1600, from in + state (n.1). Related: Instated; instating.

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