Etymology
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fricassee (n.)

1560s, from French fricassée, noun use of fem. past participle of fricasser "mince and cook in sauce" (15c.), which is of uncertain origin. Perhaps a compound from elements related to or altered by French frire "to fry" (see fry (v.)) and casser, quasser "to break, cut up" (see quash (v.)). As a verb, from 1650s.

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pickle (n.)

c. 1400, "spiced sauce served with meat or fowl" (early 14c. as a surname), probably from Middle Dutch pekel "pickle, brine," or related words in Low German and East Frisian (Dutch pekel, East Frisian päkel, German pökel), which are of uncertain origin or original meaning. Klein suggests the name of a medieval Dutch fisherman who developed the process.

The meaning "cucumber preserved in pickle" first recorded 1707, via use of the word for the salty liquid in which meat, etc. was preserved (c. 1500). Colloquial figurative sense of "a sorry plight, a state or condition of difficulty or disorder" is recorded by 1560s, from the time when the word still meant a sauce served on meat about to be eaten. Meaning "troublesome boy" is from 1788, perhaps from the notion of being "imbued" with roguery.

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layer (n.)
late 14c., "one who or that lays" (especially stones, "a mason"), agent noun from lay (v.). Passive sense of "a thickness of some material laid over a surface" is first recorded 1610s, but because the earliest English use was in cookery this is perhaps from French liue "binding," used of a thickened sauce. Of hens from 1707. Layer cake attested from 1875.
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savor (n.)

c. 1200, savour, "agreeable flavor; agreeable smell; pleasure, delight," from Old French savor "flavor, taste; sauce, seasoning; delight, pleasure," from Latin saporem (nominative sapor) "taste, flavor," related to sapere "to have a flavor" (see sapient). By c. 1300 as the flavor of a thing in any sense. From late 14c. as "taste as a property of matter."

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Lyons 
city in France in the former province of Lyonnais at the confluence of the Rhone and the Saône, from Gallo-Latin Lugudunum, which is perhaps literally "fort of Lugus," the Celtic god-name, with second element from Celtic *dunon "hill, hill-fort." The fem. adjectival form Lyonnaise is used in cookery in reference to types of onion sauce (1846). During the Revolution the place was renamed Ville-Affranchie "enfranchised town."
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carbonara (n.)

in cookery, a pasta dish served with a sauce made from eggs, olive oil, cream, cheese, and strips of bacon or ham, 1958, from Italian alla carbonara, which perhaps from carbonara "charcoal kiln," and meaning "cooked (as if) in a kiln, or from or influenced by carbonata "charcoal-grilled salt pork." Or it may be a reference somehow to the Carbonari, the 19c. secret society of Italian patriots.

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casserole (n.)

1706, "stew pan," from French casserole "sauce pan" (16c.), diminutive of casse "pan" (14c.), from Provençal cassa "melting pan," from Medieval Latin cattia "pan, vessel," possibly from Greek kyathion, diminutive of kyathos "cup for the wine bowl." Originally the pan; by 1889 also of the dishes cooked in it, via cookery phrases such as en casserole, à la casserole.

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scallop (v.)

1737 in cookery, "to bake or brown with sauce in a scallop-shell-shaped pan," by 1737, from scallop (n.); originally of oysters and the notion might have been baking or serving them in a large scallop shell. Related: Scalloped "cooked in a scallop-pan;" also "with the edges marked or cut into convex rounded lobes;" scalloping

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ragout (n.)

"highly seasoned meat and vegetable stew," 1650s, from French ragoût (mid-17c.), from ragoûter "awaken the appetite," from Old French re- "back" (see re-) + à "to" + goût "taste," from Latin gustum (nominative gustus), related to gustare "to taste, take a little of" (from PIE root *geus- "to taste; to choose"). Figuratively, of any spicy mixture, by 1670s. The name of ragu, the type of spicy pasta sauce from Bologna, is a 17c. Italian borrowing of the French word.

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chow mein (n.)

Chinese dish of stir-fried noodles served with sauce, 1898, American English, from Chinese ch'ao mien, said to mean "fried dough."

Whereas the majority of Chinese culinary terms in English have become established since the Second World War, with the rise of the Chinese restaurant, chow mein belongs to an earlier stratum, introduced via the West Coast of America in the early years of the twentieth century, and institutionalized in the 1920s and 1930s as the archetypal Sino-American dish. [Ayto, "Diner's Dictionary"]
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