1590s, "time of merrymaking," from Latin Saturnalia, the ancient Roman festivals of Saturn (held in December), a time of feasting and mirthful license for all classes, even slaves; neuter plural of the adjective Saturnalis "pertaining to Saturn," from Saturnus (see Saturn). They correspond to the Greek Kronia.
The extended sense of "period of wild or noisy revelry" is attested by 1782. Related: Saturnalian.
1550s, "pertaining to the planet Saturn;" 1610s, "pertaining to the god Saturn or his reign," from French saturnien, from Latin saturnius, from Saturn (see Saturn).
As a noun, 1590s as "one born under the influence of Saturn;" by 1738 as "a native or inhabitant of Saturn."
Some cold Saturnian, when the lifted tube
Shows to his wond'ring eye our pensile globe,
Pities our thirsty soil, and sultry air,
And thanks the friendly pow'r that fix'd him there.
[Richard Savage, "The Genius of Liberty," dated 1734, published in Gentleman's Magazine, June 1738]
mid-15c., saciaten, "fill to repletion, satisfy, feed or nourish to the full," from Latin satiatus, past participle of satiare "fill full, satisfy," from satis "enough" (from PIE root *sa- "to satisfy"). By 1620s in a bad sense, "to fill beyond or over natural desire, weary by repletion." Related: Satiated; satiating.
late 14c., satire, "one of a type of woodland deities part human or animal; demigod or spirit of the air or woods, companion of Bacchus," from Old French satire and directly from Latin satyrus, from Greek satyros, a word of unknown origin. "The etymology of [satyros] is unknown. A number of hypotheses have been proposed, but none of them makes sense ..." [Beekes].
In pre-Roman Greek art, a man-like being with the tail and ears of a horse; the conception of a being part man part goat is due to Roman sculptors, who seem to have assimilated them to the fauns of native mythology. In some English bibles the word is used curiously to translate Hebrew se'irim, a type of hairy monster superstitiously believed to inhabit deserts.
In Middle English the word could mean also a kind of ape supposed to live in Africa or Arabia (late 14c.), after a use of Greek satyros, and the name was later applied by zoologists to the orangutan (1690s). From 1781 as "very lecherous or lascivious person." Related: Satyress.
early 15c., satisfien, "do penance," also "appease, assuage;" also "fulfill (a desire), comply with (a command), satiate (a hunger or thirst)," from Old French satisfiier "pay, repay, make reparation" (14c., Modern French satisfaire), from Latin satisfacere "discharge fully, comply with, make amends," literally "do enough."
From mid-15c. as "make amends, pay damages." The meaning "cause to have enough, supply the needs of" is by c. 1500. Of feelings, "meet or fulfill the wish, desire, or expectation of," late 15c. (Caxton). From 1510s as "assure or free from doubt or uncertainty, furnish with sufficient proof." The intransitive sense of "give satisfaction or contentment" is from c. 1600.
also satis-passion, 1610s, used by Lancelot Andrewes for "atonement by adequate suffering," from Latin satis pati "to suffer enough," from satis "enough" (from PIE root *sa- "to satisfy") + pati "to endure, undergo, experience," which is of uncertain origin.