"a novel," 1765, from French roman, from Old French romanz (see romance (n.)). Roman à clef, novel in which characters represent real persons, literally "novel with a key" (French), is attested in English by 1893. And, in the days when a tec was popular reading, roman policier "a story of police detection" (1928).
mid-15c., "action of reading letter by letter," verbal noun from spell (v.1). Meaning "manner of forming words with letters" is from 1660s; meaning "a way a word has been spelled" is from 1731. Spelling bee is from 1878 (see bee; earlier spelling match, 1845; the act of winning such a schoolroom contest is described in 1854 as to spell (someone) down.
Old English rædere "one who counsels; person who reads aloud to others; lector; scholar; diviner, interpreter," agent noun from rædan (see read (v.)) in its various senses. Compare Dutch rader "adviser," Old High German ratari "counselor." The Old English fem. form was rædistre. Meaning "a reading book for schools" is by 1789.
1872, "of or pertaining to the human soul" (earlier psychical, 1640s), from Greek psykhikos "of the soul, spirit, or mind" (opposed to somatikos), also (New Testament) "concerned with the life only, animal, natural," from psykhē "soul, mind, life" (see psyche).
The meaning "characterized by psychic gifts; pertaining to the class of extraordinary and obscure phenomena of the mind not usually treated by psychologists" (mind-reading, second sight, etc.) is attested from 1871.
1520s, "find out, discover" (a sense now obsolete); 1540s, "interpret (a coded writing, etc.) by the use of a key," from de- + cipher (v.). Perhaps in part a loan-translation from French déchiffrer. From c. 1600 in the transferred sense of "discover or explain the meaning of what is difficult to understand." Sense of "succeed in reading what is written in obscure or partially obliterated characters" is by 1710. Related: Deciphered; deciphering.
place in Yorkshire, earlier Scarðabork, etc., apparently a viking name, from Old Norse and meaning "fortified place of (a man called) Skarthi," who is identified in old chronicles as Thorgils Skarthi, literally "Thorgils Harelip," from Old Norse skartð "notch, hack (in the edge of a thing); mountain pass." It has been noted that a literal reading of the name as "gap-hill" suits the location. Scarborough warning "short notice or none" is from 1540s.