Etymology
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found (v.1)

"lay the basis of, establish," late 13c., from Old French fonder "found, establish; set, place; fashion, make" (12c.), from Latin fundare "to lay the bottom or foundation" of something, from fundus "bottom, foundation" (see fund (n.)). Related: Founded; founding. Phrase founding fathers with reference to the creators of the American republic is attested from 1916.

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voodoo (n.)

religious witchcraft of Haiti and Southern U.S., ultimately of African origin, 1850, from Louisiana French voudou, from a West African language (such as Ewe and Fon vodu "spirit, demon, deity," also Vandoo, supposedly the name of an African deity, from a language of Dahomey). Compare vodun "fetish connected with snake worship in Dahomey," said to be from vo "to be afraid," or vo "harmful." The verb is attested from 1880.

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barbecue (n.)

1690s, "framework for grilling meat, fish, etc.," from American Spanish barbacoa, from Arawakan (Haiti) barbakoa "framework of sticks set upon posts," the raised wooden structure the West Indians used to either sleep on or cure meat.

The sense of "outdoor feast of roasted meat or fish as a social entertainment" is from 1733; the modern popular noun sense of "grill for cooking over an open fire" is from 1931.

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imperator (n.)

"absolute ruler," 1580s, from Latin imperator "commander-in-chief, leader, master," agent noun from stem of imperare "to command" (see imperative (adj.)). In the Roman republic, a holder of military command during active service, also a title bestowed on victorious generals; in the Roman Empire, the emperor as commander-in-chief of the armies. Related: Imperatorial.

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Pinyin (n.)

system of Romanized spelling for Chinese, 1963, from Chinese pinyin "to spell, to combine sounds into syllables," from pin "put together" + yin "sound, tone." Adopted officially by the People's Republic of China in 1958. Outside China gradually superseding the 19c. Wade-Giles system (Mao Tse-tung is Wade-Giles, Mao Zedong is Pinyin).

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Krugerrand (n.)

also Kruger rand, 1967, South African gold coin (issued for investment purposes) bearing a portrait of Transvaal President Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (1825-1904); second element is rand, unit of decimal currency introduced in Republic of South Africa 1961, named for The Rand, gold-mining area in Transvaal, short for Witwatersrand (see rand).

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canton (n.)

1530s, "corner, angle," from French canton "angle, corner (of a room); piece, portion of a country" (13c.), from Italian (Lombard dialect) cantone "region," especially in the mountains, augmentative of Latin canto "section of a country," literally "corner" (see cant (n.2)).

From 1570s as a term in heraldry and flag descriptions. From c. 1600 as "a subdivision of a country;" applied to the sovereign states of the Swiss republic from 1610s.

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annals (n.)

"chronicle of events year-by-year," 1560s, from Latin annales libri "chronicles, yearlies," literally "yearly books," plural of noun use of annalis "pertaining to a year," from annus "year" (see annual (adj.)). In the early Roman republic, the Pontifex Maximus each year would record public events on tablets called Annales Maximi, hence Latin historical works were called annales.

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consul (n.)

late 14c., "one of the two chief magistrates in the Roman republic," from Old French consule and directly from Latin consul "magistrate in ancient Rome," probably originally "one who consults the Senate," from consulere "to deliberate, take counsel" (see consultation).

Its modern sense of "agent appointed by a sovereign state to reside in a foreign place to protect the interests of its citizens and commerce there" began with use of the word as appellation of a representative chosen by a community of merchants living in a foreign country (c. 1600), an extended sense that developed 13c. in the Spanish form of the word.

In French history it refers to the title given to the three magistrates of the republic after the dissolution of the Directory in 1799. Old English glossed the Latin word with gercynig, "year-king, king whose authority lasted a year," as the closest notion of it they could form in their language (Ælfric's vocabulary also has it as gerefa "reeve," a high-ranking king's officer).

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patroon (n.)

1660s, a variant of patron used in foreign contexts, from Dutch patroon (a French loan-word) or French patron "master, patron," from Old French (see patron; also see -oon); used from 1758 in parts of New York and New Jersey colonies for "landholder," especially one with certain manorial privileges (abolished gradually in the early republic) under the old Dutch governments by the charter of 1629.

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