Etymology
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penurious (adj.)

1590s, "in want, needy, poverty-stricken," a sense now obsolete, from penury + -ous, or else from Medieval Latin penuriosus, from Latin penuria "penury." The meaning "parsimonious, excessively saving or sparing in the use of money" is attested by 1630s. Related: Penuriously; penuriousness.

Penurious means literally in penury, but always feeling and acting as though one were in poverty, saving beyond reason; the word is rather stronger than parsimonious, and has perhaps rather more reference to the treatment of others. One may be parsimonious or penurious, through habits formed in times of having little, without being really miserly. [Century Dictionary]
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quibble (n.)

1610s, "a pun, a play on words," probably a diminutive of obsolete quib "evasion of a point at issue" (1540s), which is based on Latin quibus? "by what (things)?" Its extensive use in legal writing supposedly gave it the association with trivial argument: "a word of frequent occurrence in legal documents ... hence associated with the 'quirks and quillets' of the law." [OED].

Latin quibus is dative or ablative plural of quid "in what respect? to what extent?; how? why?," neuter of relative pronoun quis (from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns).

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dervish (n.)

"Islamic monk or friar who has taken a vow of poverty and austerity," 1580s, from Turkish dervish, from Persian darvesh, darvish "beggar, poor," hence "religious mendicant;" equivalent of Arabic faqir (see fakir). The "whirling dervishes" are one order among many. Originally dervis; modern spelling is from mid-19c.

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wrinkly (adj.)
early 15c. (in reference to the penis), from wrinkle (n.) + -y (2). As teen slang noun for "old person," from 1972 ("old" being relative; a British reference from 1982 applies it to people in their 40s).
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neptunium (n.)

transuranic element, 1941, from Neptune + element ending -ium. Named for its relative position in the periodic table, next after uranium, as the planet Neptune is one beyond Uranus. See also plutonium.

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long-haul (adj.)
1873, originally in railroad use, in reference to the relative length of transportation, which determined the rate paid for it (long hauls = lower rate per mile); see long (adj.) + haul (n.).
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vendetta (n.)
"a private war in which a kinsman wreaks vengeance on the slayer of a relative," 1846, from Italian vendetta "a feud, blood feud," from Latin vindicta "vengeance, revenge" (see vindication). Especially associated with Corsica.
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demarcate (v.)

1816, "mark off from adjoining lands or territory," a back-formation from demarcation. Figurative sense of "determine the relative limits of" is by 1858. Related: Demarcated; demarcating. The older verb is demark.

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buoyancy (n.)
1713, "relative lightness, quality of floating on water or other liquid," from buoyant + -cy. Figurative sense "cheerfulness, hopefulness" (of spirits, etc.) is from 1819. Meaning "power of supporting a body so that it floats" is from 1831.
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Coriolis (adj.)

by 1912 in reference to the inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame, from the name of French scientist Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis (1792-1843) who described it c. 1835.

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