"absent in mind, distracted from present reality by intellectual activity," 1640s, past-participle adjective from abstract (v.). Related: Abstractedly.
An absent man is one whose mind wanders unconsciously from his immediate surroundings, or from the topic which demands his attention; he may be thinking of little or nothing. An abstracted man is kept from what is present by thoughts and feelings so weighty or interesting that they engross his attention. [Century Dictionary]
early 15c., dissimulaten, "conceal under false appearances, cause to appear different from the reality," from Latin dissimulatus, past participle of dissimulare "to disguise, hide, conceal, keep secret," from dis- (see dis-) + simulare "to make like, imitate, copy, represent," from stem of similis "like, resembling, of the same kind" (see similar). Intransitive sense of "practice pretense, feign" is from 1796. Related: Dissimulated; dissimulating. Earlier was dissimule (late 14c.), transitive and intransitive, from Old French dissimuler.
late 14c., dissimulacioun, "concealment of reality under a diverse or contrary appearance," from Old French dissimulation (12c.) and directly from Latin dissimulationem (nominative dissimulatio) "a disguising, concealment, dissembling," noun of action from past-participle stem of dissimulare "make unlike, conceal, disguise," from dis- "not, opposite of" (see dis-) + simulare "to make like, imitate, copy, represent," from stem of similis "like, resembling, of the same kind," from Old Latin semol "together" (from PIE root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with").
1776, "functional derangement arising from disorders of the nervous system (not caused by a lesion or injury)," coined by Scottish physician William Cullen (1710-1790) from Greek neuron "nerve" (see neuro-) + Modern Latin -osis "abnormal condition." Originally of epilepsy, hysteria, neuralgia, etc. Used in a general psychological sense from 1871, "change in the nerve cells of the brain resulting in symptoms of stress," but not radical loss of touch with reality (psychosis); clinical use in psychiatry dates from 1923.
1796 in the abstract metaphysical sense "belief that reality is made up only of ideas," from ideal (adj.) + -ism. Probably formed on model of French idéalisme. Meaning "tendency to represent things in an ideal form" is from 1829. Meaning "pursuit of the ideal, a striving after the perfect state" (of truth, purity, justice, etc.).
In the philosophical sense the Germans have refined it into absolute (Hegel), subjective (Fichte), objective (von Schelling), and transcendental (Kant).
That the glory of this world in the end is appearance leaves the world more glorious, if we feel it is a show of some fuller splendour : but the sensuous curtain is a deception and a cheat, if it hides some colourless movement of atoms, some spectral woof of impalpable abstractions, or unearthly ballet of bloodless categories. Though dragged to such conclusions, we can not embrace them. Our principles may be true, but they are not reality. They no more make that Whole which commands our devotion, than some shredded dissection of human tatters is that warm and breathing beauty of flesh which our hearts found delightful. [F.H. Bradley, "Principles of Logic," 1883]
1823, a spectacular painting intended to be exhibited in a darkened room to produce an appearance of reality using lighting from behind it, from French diorama (1822), from assimilated form of Greek dia "through" (see dia-) + orama "that which is seen, a sight" (see panorama, on which this word is based). It was invented in France by Daguerre (later the pioneer photographer) and Bauton and first exhibited in England in 1823.
Meaning "small-scale replica of a scene, etc., using three-dimensional objects and a painted background" is from 1902. Related: Dioramic.
type of two-seated, four-wheeled carriage, 1743, from Landau, town in Bavaria where they first were made. The first element is the common Germanic element found in English land (n.); the identity of the second is disputed. But Klein says the vehicle name is "in reality" Spanish lando "originally a light four-wheeled carriage drawn by mules," from Arabic al-andul. "These [landaus] are complex in construction and liable to get out of order, which prevents their popular use" [Henry William Herbert ("Frank Forester"), "Hints to Horse-Keepers," New York, 1859].