Etymology
Advertisement
muskrat (n.)

also musk-rat, "large aquatic rodent of North America," 1610s, alteration (by association with musk and rat) of an Algonquian word (probably Powhatan), muscascus, literally "it is red," so called for its coloring. From cognate Abenaki moskwas comes variant form musquash (1620s). Dialectal mushrat is by 1890.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
ration (n.)

1550, "the mental process of reasoning," later, "the relation of one number to another" (1660s), then "fixed allowance of food or other means of subsistence for a fixed period of time" (1702, often rations, from French ration in this sense).

All are from Latin rationem (nominative ratio) "reckoning, numbering, calculation; business affair, procedure," also "reason, reasoning, judgment, understanding," in Medieval Latin "a computed share or allowance of food." This is from rat-, past participle stem of reri "to reckon, calculate," also "think" (from PIE root *re- "to reason, count").

The first sense listed for the English word is obsolete; the second has gone with ratio. The military pronunciation (rhymes with fashion) took over in English from the preferred civilian pronunciation (rhymes with nation) during World War I. That war also gave the word a specific sense of "officially limited allowance for civilians in times of war or dearth" (by 1917).

Related entries & more 
corn-snake (n.)

popular name of a type of large but harmless rat-snake of the southeastern and central U.S., often found in cornfields, 1670s, from corn (n.1) + snake (n.).

Related entries & more 
hamster (n.)

c. 1600, from German Hamster, from Middle High German hamastra "hamster," probably from Old Church Slavonic chomestoru "hamster" (the animal is native to southeastern Europe), which is perhaps a blend of Russian chomiak "hamster," and Lithuanian staras "ground squirrel." The older English name for it was German rat.

Related entries & more 
Bundestag (n.)
German federal council, 1879, from German Bundestag, from genitive of Bund "league, confederacy, association" (related to English band (n.2) and bind (v.)) + tag, literally "day;" as a verb, tagen, "to sit in conference" (see day; also compare adjourn). Hence also Bundesrat "federal council of the German empire" (1872), from rat, rath "council" (see rathskeller).
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
wharf (n.)

late Old English hwearf "shore, bank where ships can tie up," earlier "dam, embankment," from Proto-Germanic *hwarfaz (source also of Middle Low German werf "mole, dam, wharf," German Werft "shipyard, dockyard"); related to Old English hwearfian "to turn," perhaps in a sense implying "busy activity," from PIE root *kwerp- "to turn, revolve" (source also of Old Norse hverfa "to turn round," German werben "to enlist, solicit, court, woo," Gothic hvairban "to wander," Greek karpos "wrist," Sanskrit surpam "winnowing fan"). Wharf rat is from 1812 as "type of rat common on ships and docks;" extended sense "person who hangs around docks" is recorded from 1836.

Related entries & more 
floe (n.)

1817, first used by Arctic explorers, probably from Norwegian flo "layer, slab," from Old Norse flo, from Proto-Germanic *floho-, from PIE root *plak- (1) "to be flat." Related to first element in flagstone. Earlier explorers used flake. Floe-rat was a seal-hunter's name for the ringed seal (1862).

Related entries & more 
arraign (v.)
late 14c., araynen, "to call to account," also "to call up on a criminal charge," from Old French araisnier "speak to, address; accuse (in a law court)," from Vulgar Latin *arrationare, from Latin adrationare, from ad "to" (see ad-) + *rationare, from ratio "argumentation; reckoning, calculation" (from rat-, past participle stem of reri "to reckon, calculate," also "think" (from PIE root *re- "to reason, count"). The unetymological -g- is a 16c. overcorrection based on reign, etc. Related: Arraigned; arraigning.
Related entries & more 
brat (n.)
c. 1500, "beggar's child" ("... wyle beggar with thy brattis ...), originally slang, from a northern, Midlands and western England dialect word for "makeshift or ragged garment;" probably the same word as Old English bratt "cloak," which is from a Celtic source (compare Old Irish bratt "cloak, cloth"). The transferred meaning is perhaps from notion of "child's apron." Hollywood Brat Pack (modeled on 1950s Rat Pack) is from 1985. Brattery "nursery" is attested from 1788.
Related entries & more 
Coumadin (n.)

by 1953, name for human anti-coagulant use of the rat poison warfarin sodium, abstracted from the chemical name, 3-(α-acetonylbenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin; earlier known as Dicoumarol, it attained publicity when it was used in 1955 to treat U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower after a heart attack. Coumarin as the name of an aromatic crystalline substance is by 1830 in English, from French coumarine, from coumarou, the native name in Guyana of the tonka or tonquin bean, one source of the substance.

Related entries & more 

Page 4