Etymology
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half-breed (n.)

"person of mixed race," 1760; as an adjective by 1762; from half + breed (n.).

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congener (n.)

"a thing of the same kind as, or nearly allied to, another," 1730s, from French congénère (16c.), from Latin congener "of the same race or kind," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + gener-, stem of genus "race, kind" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups). Related: Congenerous (1640s); congeneracy.

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phylum (n.)

"a primary division of the plant or animal kingdom, a genetically related tribe or race of organisms," 1868, Modern Latin, coined by French naturalist Georges Léopole Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert, Baron Cuvier (1769-1832) from Greek phylon "race, stock," related to phylē "tribe, clan" (see phylo-). The immediate source of the English word probably is from German.

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sweepstakes (n.)

"prize won in a race or contest," 1773, from Middle English swepestake "one who sweeps or wins all the stakes in a game" (late 14c. as a surname or nickname; late 15c. as the name of one of the King's ships), from swepen "to sweep" (see sweep (v.)) + stake (n.2). Meaning "any race for stakes contributed" is from 1862.

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androphobia (n.)

"morbid fear of the male sex" (sometimes, rather, "of the human race" or "of crowds"), 1844, from andro- "man, male" + -phobia. Related: Androphobic.

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kin (n.)

c. 1200, from Old English cynn "family; race; kind, sort, rank; nature" (also "gender, sex," a sense obsolete since Middle English), from Proto-Germanic *kunja- "family" (source also of Old Frisian kenn, Old Saxon kunni "kin, kind, race, tribe," Old Norse kyn, Old High German chunni "kin, race;" Danish kjön, Swedish kön, Middle Dutch, Dutch kunne "sex, gender;" Gothic kuni "family, race," Old Norse kundr "son," German Kind "child"), from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups.

In the Teutonic word, as in Latin genus and Greek [genos], three main senses appear, (1) race or stock, (2) class or kind, (3) gender or sex .... [OED]

Related to both words kind and to child. From 1590s as an adjective, from the noun and as a shortening of akin. Legal next of kin (1540s) does not include the widow, "she being specifically provided for by the law as widow" [Century Dictionary], and must be a blood relation of the deceased.

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racialism (n.)

1882, "tribalism;" 1890, "political system advocating superiority and exclusive rights based on race," from racial + -ism. Also see racist.

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hurdle (n.)

Old English hyrdel "frame of intertwined twigs used as a temporary barrier," diminutive of hyrd "door," from Proto-Germanic *hurdiz "wickerwork frame, hurdle" (source also of Old Saxon hurth "plaiting, netting," Dutch horde "wickerwork," German Hürde "hurdle, fold, pen;" Old Norse hurð, Gothic haurds "door"), from PIE *krtis (source also of Latin cratis "hurdle, wickerwork," Greek kartalos "a kind of basket," kyrtos "fishing creel"), from root *kert- "to weave, twist together" (source also of Sanskrit krt "to spin").

Used as temporary fencing in agriculture. Sense of "barrier to jump in a race" is by 1822 (hurdle-race also is from 1822); hurdles as a type of race (originally horse race) with hurdles as obstacles is attested by 1836. Figurative sense of "obstacle" is 1924.

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racialist (n.)

"a racist, an advocate of racial theory, a believer in the superiority of a particular race," 1910, from racial + -ist. Also see racist. As an adjective from 1917.

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ethnography (n.)

"science of the description and classification of the races of mankind," 1812, perhaps from German Ethnographie; see ethno- "race, culture" + -graphy "study." Related: Ethnographer; ethnographic.

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