Etymology
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prohibit (v.)

"forbid, interdict by authority," early 15c., prohibiten, from Latin prohibitus, past participle of prohibere "hold back, restrain, hinder, prevent," from pro "away, forth" (see pro-) + habere "to hold" (from PIE root *ghabh- "to give or receive"). For form, compare inhibit, exhibit. Related: Prohibited; prohibiting.

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exclude (v.)

"to shut out, debar from admission or participation, prevent from entering or sharing," mid-14c., from Latin excludere "keep out, shut out, hinder," from ex "out" (see ex-) + claudere "to close, shut" (see close (v.)). Related: Excluded; excluding.

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round robin (n.)
"petition or complaint signed in a circle to disguise the order in which names were affixed and prevent ringleaders from being identified," 1730, originally in reference to sailors and frequently identified as a nautical term. As a kind of tournament in which each player plays the others, it is recorded from 1895.
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Hayward 
proper name, from Old English hege-weard "guardian of the fence/hedge" (see hedge (n.) + ward (n.)). His original duties seem to have been protecting the fences around the Lammas lands, when enclosed, to prevent cattle from breaking in while the crops grew.
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deter (v.)

1570s, "discourage and stop by fear," from Latin deterrere "to frighten from, discourage from," from de "away" (see de-) + terrere "frighten, fill with fear" (see terrible). Meaning "stop or prevent from acting or proceeding by any countervailing motive" is from 1590s. Related: Deterred; deterring.

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pad (v.2)

"to stuff with pads or padding, increase the amount of," 1827, from pad (n.). Of writing, "expand by insertion of extraneous matter," 1831; transferred to expense accounts, etc. by 1890. Related: Padded; padding. The idea of a padded cell in an asylum or prison (1862, padded room) is to prevent those inside from injuring themselves by dashing against the walls.

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intercept (v.)
c. 1400, "to cut off" (a line), "prevent" (the spread of a disease), from Latin interceptus, past participle of intercipere "take or seize between, to seize in passing," from inter "between" (see inter-) + -cipere, combining form of capere "to take, catch," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp." Related: Intercepted; intercepting.
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inoculation (n.)

mid-15c. in horticulture, "act or practice of grafting buds;" 1714 in pathology, "insertion of a form of a virus in order to prevent a more serious attack of it," from Latin inoculationem (nominative inoculatio) "an engrafting, budding," noun of action from past-participle stem of inoculare (see inoculate).

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anticipate (v.)
1530s, "to cause to happen sooner," a back-formation from anticipation, or else from Latin anticipatus, past participle of anticipare "take (care of) ahead of time," literally "taking into possession beforehand," from anti, an old form of ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp."

Later "prevent or preclude by prior action" (c. 1600) and "be aware of (something) coming at a future time" (1640s). Used in the sense of "expect, look forward to" since 1749, but anticipate has an element of "prepare for, forestall" that, etymologically, should prevent its being used as a synonym for expect. Related: Anticipated; anticipating.
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castrato (n.)

"male person emasculated during childhood to prevent the change of voice at puberty, artificial male soprano," 1763, from Italian castrato, from Latin castratus (see castration). "The voice of such a person, after arriving at adult age, combines the high range and sweetness of the female with the power of the male voice" [Century Dictionary].

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