Etymology
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privative (adj.)

late 14c., privatif, "characterized by absence of a quality, characterized by taking away or removal of something," from Latin privativus "denoting privation," in grammar, "negative," from privatus, past participle of privare "to deprive, rob, strip" of anything; "to deliver from" anything" (see private (adj.)).

In grammar, from 1580s as "expressing negation, changing the sense of a word from positive to negative" (as do the prefixes un-, an- (1), in- (1), a- (3), etc.). Related: Privatively.

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disbelief (n.)

"positive unbelief, mental rejection of a statement or assertion for which credence is demanded," 1670s; see dis- + belief. A Latin-Germanic hybrid.

Disbelief is more commonly used to express an active mental opposition which does not imply a blameworthy disregard of evidence. Unbelief may be a simple failure to believe from lack of evidence or knowledge; but its theological use has given it also the force of wilful opposition to the truth. [Century Dictionary, 1897]
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hap (n.)
c. 1200, "chance, a person's luck, fortune, fate;" also "unforeseen occurrence," from Old Norse happ "chance, good luck," from Proto-Germanic *hap- (source of Old English gehæp "convenient, fit"), from PIE *kob- "to suit, fit, succeed" (source also of Sanskrit kob "good omen; congratulations, good wishes," Old Irish cob "victory," Norwegian heppa "lucky, favorable, propitious," Old Church Slavonic kobu "fate, foreboding, omen"). Meaning "good fortune" in English is from early 13c. Old Norse seems to have had the word only in positive senses.
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crafty (adj.)

mid-12c., crafti, "skillful, clever, learned," from Old English cræftig "strong, powerful," later "skillful, ingenious," acquiring after c. 1200 a bad sense of "cunning, sly, skillful in scheming," the main modern sense (but through 15c. also "skillfully done or made; intelligent, learned; artful, scientific"); see craft (n.) + -y (2). Perhaps to retain a distinctly positive sense, Middle English also used craftious as "skillful, artistic" (mid-15c.). Related: Craftily; craftiness.

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proton (n.)

1920 in physics sense of "sub-atomic particle with a positive charge," coined by British physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) from noun use of Greek prōton, neuter of prōtos "first" (see proto-), on analogy of electron; supposedly because hydrogen (the nucleus of which, in its commonest form, consists of one proton) was hypothesized as a constituent of all the elements. The word was used earlier in embryology (1893) as a translation of German anlage ("fundamental thing") based on Aristotle's phrase he prote ousia to proton.

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neopaganism (n.)

also neo-paganism, "a revival or reproduction of paganism," 1858; see neo- "new" + paganism. Related: Neopagan (1854 as an adjective, 1855 as a noun).

[The 'positive' philosopher of the present day] offers in the stead of Christianity a specious phase of neo-paganism, by which the nineteenth century after Christ may be assimilated to the golden age of Mencius and Confucius; or, in other words, may consummate its intellectual freedom, and attain the highest pinnacle of human progress, by reverting to a state of childhood and of moral imbecility. [Introduction to Charles Hardwick, "Christ and Other Masters," Cambridge, 18758]
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futurism (n.)
1909 as the name of a movement in arts and literature, from Italian futurismo, coined 1909 by Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944); see future + -ism. Futurist is from 1911 in the arts movement sense; attested from 1842 in a Protestant theological sense ("one who holds that nearly the whole of the Book of Revelations refers principally to events yet to come" - Century Dictionary). As "one who has (positive) feelings about the future" it is attested from 1846 but marked in dictionaries as "rare."
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demerit (n.)

late 14c., "that which is censurable, wrong-doing, an offense, a crime," from Old French desmerite "blame, demerit" (Modern French démérite), from des- "not, opposite" (see dis-) + merite "merit" (see merit (n.)) or from Latin demeritum "fault," from past-participle stem of demereri "to merit, deserve," from de- in its completive sense.

Both senses, "that which one deserves," whether good or bad, existed in the French and Middle English words. The positive sense in English faded mid-17c. Meaning "penalty point in school" is by 1862, short for demerit mark.

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discriminate (v.)
Origin and meaning of discriminate

1620s, "distinguish from something else or from each other, observe or mark the differences between," from Latin discriminatus, past participle of discriminare "to divide, separate," from discrimen (genitive discriminis) "interval, distinction, difference," derived noun from discernere "to separate, set apart, divide, distribute; distinguish, perceive," from dis- "off, away" (see dis-) + cernere "distinguish, separate, sift" (from PIE root *krei- "to sieve," thus "discriminate, distinguish").

The adverse sense, "make invidious distinctions prejudicial to a class of persons" (usually based on race or color) is first recorded 1866 in American English. Positive sense remains in discriminating. Related: Discriminated.

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resent (v.)

c. 1600, "feel pain or distress" (a sense now obsolete); 1620s, "take (something) ill, consider as an injury or affront; be in some degree angry or provoked at," from French ressentir "feel pain, regret," from Old French resentir "feel again, feel in turn" (13c.), from re-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see re-), + sentir "to feel," from Latin sentire "to feel, think" (see sense (n.)).

It sometimes could have a positive sense in English, "appreciate, be grateful for" (1640s), but this is obsolete. Related: Resented; resenting.

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