Etymology
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puddle (n.)

early 14c., "small pool of dirty water," frequentative or diminutive of Old English pudd "ditch," related to German pudeln "to splash in water" (compare poodle). Originally used of pools and ponds as well. Puddle-duck for the common domestic duck is by 1846.

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gene (n.)

1911, from German Gen, coined 1905 by Danish scientist Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen (1857-1927), from Greek genea "generation, race" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). De Vries had earlier called them pangenes. Gene pool is attested from 1946.

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gouache (n.)

method of painting, 1868, from French gouache "watercolors, water-color painting" (18c.), from Italian guazzo "watercolor," originally "spray, splash, puddle, pool," from Latin aquatio "watering, watering place," from aquatus, past participle of aquari "to bring water for drinking," from aqua "water" (from PIE root *akwa- "water").

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archipelago (n.)
c. 1500, from Italian arcipelago "the Aegean Sea" (13c.), from arci- "chief, principal," from Latin archi- (see arch-) + pelago "pool; gulf, abyss," from Medieval Latin pelagus "pool; gulf, abyss, sea," from Greek pelagos "sea, high sea, open sea, main" (see pelagic).

The elements of the word are Greek, but there is no record of arkhipelagos in ancient or Medieval Greek (the modern word in Greek is borrowed from Italian), so the word perhaps is an Italian compound or an alteration in Italian of Medieval Latin Egeopelagus, from Greek Aigaion pelagos "Aegean Sea." The Aegean being full of island chains, the meaning was extended in Italian to "any sea studded with islands" (a sense attested in English from c. 1600) and to the islands themselves. Related: Archipelagian; archipelagic.
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paludal (adj.)

"of or pertaining to a marsh or marshes," 1803, with -al (1) + stem of Latin palus "a swamp, a fen, a marsh," from PIE *pelkiz- (source also of Sanskrit palvala- "pond, pool;" Old Prussian pelky "marsh," Lithuanian pėlkė "marsh," Latvian pelce "puddle"). Alternative formations paludine (1832, from French) and paludinous (1866) are later in English.

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stanch (v.)
"to stop the flow of" (especially of blood), early 14c., from Old French estanchier "cause to cease flowing (of blood), stop, hinder; extinguish (of fire); tire, exhaust, drain" (Modern French étancher), from Vulgar Latin *stancare, perhaps contracted from *stagnicare, from Latin stagnum "pond, pool" (see stagnate). But Barnhart says it probably is from Latin stantio, present participle of stare "to stand."
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Lincoln 
county town of Lincolnshire, Old English Lindcylene, from Latin Lindum Colonia from a Latinized form of British *lindo "pool, lake" (corresponding to Welsh llyn). Originally a station for retired IX Legion veterans. Lincoln green as a type of dyed cloth fabric made there is from c. 1500.

In reference to U.S. president Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), Lincolnesque is from 1894 (earliest reference is to the beard); Lincolniana is from 1862.
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rack (v.1)

early 15c., rakken, "to stretch, stretch out (cloth) for drying," also, of persons, "to torture by violently stretching on the rack," from rack (n.1) or from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German recken. Of other pains from 1580s.

Figurative sense of "subject to strenuous effort" (of the brain, memory, etc.) is by 1580s; that of "to torment, afflict with great pain or distress" is from c. 1600. Meaning "fit with racks" is from 1580s.

Sense of "to place (pool balls, etc.) in a rack" as before starting a game is by 1909 (the noun in this sense is by 1907). Teenager slang meaning "to sleep" is from 1960s (rack (n.) was Navy slang for "bed" in 1940s). Related: Racked; racking. Rack up "register, accumulate, achieve" is attested by 1943 (in Billboard magazine), probably from pool halls, perhaps from a method of keeping score. To rack up formerly was "fill a stable rack with hay or straw for horses kept overnight" (1743).

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piscine (n.)

early 14c., "natural or artificial reservoir for water, bathing pool," from Old French piscine "fishpond," from Latin piscina, from piscis "a fish" (from PIE root *pisk- "a fish"). The ecclesiastical sense (also piscina) "stone basin in a church placed close to the altar and used to receive the water in which the priest washed his hands before the celebration of the eucharist" is from late 15c., from Medieval Latin piscina. As an adjective from 1799.

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latex (n.)
1660s, "body fluid," from Latin latex (genitive laticis) "liquid, a liquid, fluid," probably from Greek latax "dregs," from PIE root *lat- "wet, moist" (source also of Middle Irish laith "beer," Welsh llaid "mud, mire," Lithuanian latakas "pool, puddle," Old Norse leþja "filth").

From 1835 as "milky liquid from plants." Meaning "water-dispersed polymer particles" (used in rubber goods, paints, etc.) is from 1937. As an adjective by 1954, in place of the classically correct laticiferous.
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