Etymology
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sheeney (n.)

"a Jew," 1816, of unknown origin. OED points to Russian zhid, Polish żyd, Czech zid "a Jew." Opprobrious by late 19c. and subsequently a vulgar term of abuse, but it was used before c. 1870 by Jews and Gentiles without apparent intent of insult.

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pentacle (n.)

1590s, "mathematical figure (presumably originally one of five points) used in magical ceremonies and considered a defense against demons," from Medieval Latin pentaculum "pentagram," a hybrid coined from Greek pente "five" (from PIE root *penkwe- "five") + Latin -culum, diminutive (or instrumental) suffix. OED notes other similar words: Italian had pentacolo "anything with five points," and French pentacle (16c.) was the name of something used in necromancy, perhaps a five-branched candlestick; French had pentacol "amulet worn around the neck" (14c.), from pend- "to hang" + a "to" + col "neck." The same figure as a pentagram, except in magical usage, where it has been extended to other symbols of power, including a six-point star. Related: Pentacular.

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chain-saw (n.)

also chain saw, chainsaw; 1818 as a surgical apparatus (for amputations) consisting of a chain, the links of which have serated edges; 1835 in the saw mill sense, "power-driven saw consisting of a chain with cutting points attached to the links;" from chain (n.) + saw (n.).

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catenary (adj.)

"relating to a chain, like a chain or rope hanging freely from two fixed points," 1872, from Latin catenarius "relating to a chain," from catenanus "chained, fettered," from catena "chain, fetter, shackle" (see chain (n.)). As a noun in mathematics, "catenary curve," from 1788. Related: Catenarian.

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Schneider 

surname, German, literally "tailor" (equivalent to English Snyder), from schneiden "to cut" (see schnitzel). As a verb meaning "to defeat thoroughly," it appears to be from the game of skat, 1885, where it describes an emphatic way of winning (another way is known as a Schwartz, another German surname). It is attested in German as a skat term by 1860.

In all simple bids, a player proposes to win the game, that is, make at least sixty-one points. With a strong hand he may bid to Schneider his opponents ; that is to prevent them from making thirty points. ["Trumps," "The American Hoyle," New York: 1885]
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festoon (n.)
"string or chain of flowers, ribbon, or other material suspended between two points," 1620s, from French feston (16c.), from Italian festone, literally "a festive ornament," apparently from festa "celebration, feast," from Vulgar Latin *festa (see feast (n.)). The verb is attested from 1789. Related: Festooned.
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patzer (n.)

also potzer, "an incompetent chess player," especially one who doesn't know he is, by 1948, of uncertain origin. OED points to German patzen "to bungle," but notes that, though the form looks Yiddish, there doesn't seem to be such a word in Yiddish.

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hoyden (n.)
"ill-bred, boisterous young female," 1670s; earlier "rude, boorish fellow" (1590s), of uncertain origin; perhaps from Dutch heiden "rustic, uncivilized man," from Middle Dutch heiden "heathen," from Proto-Germanic *haithinaz- (see heathen). OED points to Elizabethan hoit "indulge in riotous and noisy mirth" in Nares.
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polyaesthesia (n.)

"production, by stimulation of a single point on the skin, of a sensation as if two or more points were stimulated," especially as observed in tabes dorsualis, 1888, Modern Latin, from Greek poly- "many" (see poly-) + aisthēsis "feeling" (from PIE root *au- "to perceive").

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pointer (n.)

mid-14c., "a tiler" (early 13c. as a surname), agent noun from point (v.). From c. 1500 as "maker of needlepoint lace." From 1570s as "thing that points;" meaning "dog that stands rigid in the presence of game, facing the quarry" is recorded from 1717. Meaning "item of advice" is recorded by 1883.

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