Etymology
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machinate (v.)

c. 1600, "to lay plots, intrigue," a back-formation from machination, or else from Latin machinatus, past participle of machinari "to contrive skillfully; to design, scheme, plot." Transitive sense of "to plan, contrive, form (a plot, scheme, etc.)" also is from c. 1600. Related: Machinated; machinating; machinator.

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pattern (v.)

1580s, "to make a pattern for, design, plan" (a sense now obsolete), from pattern (n.). Meaning "to make something after a pattern" is from c. 1600; that of "to cover with a design or pattern" is by 1857. To pattern after "take as a model" is by 1878.

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off-shore (adv., adj.)

also offshore, 1720, "in a direction away from the shore," from off (prep.) + shore (n.). As an adjective in 19c., "carried on more than three miles from shore." American English use for "other than the U.S." is from 1948 and the Marshall Plan.

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counsel (v.)

c. 1300, counseilen, "to give or offer advice, admonish, instruct," from Old French conseiller "to advise, counsel," from Latin consiliari, from consilium "plan, opinion," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + root of calare "to announce, summon" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout"). Related: Counseled

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Dalton 

1920 in reference to a plan or system of school education designed by Helen Parkhurst, from Dalton, Massachusetts, U.S., where it was first adopted. For Daltonism (a reference to English chemist John Dalton), see color-blindness. Daltonian, in reference to Dalton's work, is attested by 1813.

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cross-purpose (n.)

1680s, "an opposing or counter purpose, a conflicting intention or plan," from cross- + purpose (n.). It is attested earlier as the name of a popular parlor game (1660s), and the phrase be at cross-purposes "have conflicting plans to attain the same end" (1680s) might be from the game.

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design (n.)

1580s, "a scheme or plan in the mind," from French desseign, desseing "purpose, project, design," from the verb in French (see design (v.)). Especially "an intention to act in some particular way," often to do something harmful or illegal (1704); compare designing. Meaning "adoption of means to an end" is from 1660s.

In art, "a drawing, especially an outline," 1630s. The artistic sense was taken into French as dessin from Italian disegno, from disegnare "to mark out," from Latin designare "mark out, devise, choose, designate, appoint" (which is also ultimately the source of the English verb), from de "out" (see de-) + signare "to mark," from signum "identifying mark, sign" (see sign (n.)).

[T]he artistic sense was taken into Fr. and gradually differentiated in spelling, so that in mod.F. dessein is 'purpose, plan', dessin 'design in art'. Eng. on the contrary uses design, conformed to the verb, in both senses. [OED]

General (non-scheming) meaning "a plan our outline" is from 1590s. Meaning "the practical application of artistic principles" is from 1630s. Sense of "artistic details that go to make up an edifice, artistic creation, or decorative work" is from 1640s.

Design is not the offspring of idle fancy; it is the studied result of accumulative observation and delightful habit. [Ruskin, "Modern Manufacture and Design," 1859]
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apropos (adv.)

1660s, "opportunely," from French à propos "to the purpose," from propos "thing said in conversation, talk; purpose, plan," from Latin propositium "purpose," past participle of proponere "to set forth, propose" (see propound). The meaning "as regards, with reference to" (with of) is by 1761, from French. As an adjective, "to the point or purpose," from 1690s.

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calculate (v.)
1560s, "to ascertain by computation, estimate by mathematical means," from Latin calculatus, past participle of calculare "to reckon, compute," from calculus (see calculus). Meaning "to plan, devise" is from 1650s; hence "to purpose, intend" and "to think, guess" (1830), both U.S. idioms. Replaced earlier calculen (mid-14c.), from Old French calculer. Related: Calculable.
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plot (v.)

1580s, "to make a map or diagram of, lay down on paper according to scale;" also "to lay plans for, conspire to effect or bring about" (usually with evil intent), from plot (n.). Intransitive sense of "to form a plan or device" is from c. 1600. Related: Plotted; plotter; plotting.

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