Etymology
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bionomy (n.)

"science of the laws of life, or of living functions," 1853, in books on Comte's philosophy; see bio- "life" + -nomy "rule, law." Related: Bionomic.

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existentialist 

by 1895 (adj.) in philosophy; 1945 (n.); from existential + -ist and in later use from French existentialiste, from existentialisme (1940); see existentialism. Related: Existentialistic.

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sentimentalism (n.)

"tendency to be swayed by sentiment; sentimental habit of mind," 1801, from sentimental + -ism. Originally especially in reference to the philosophy of Rousseau.

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Shakti (n.)

in Hindu philosophy and theology, "divine power, active dimension of godhead," from Sanskrit saknoti "is able, is strong," which is said to be from PIE root *kak- "to enable, help."

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sectary (n.)

"member or adherent of a sect," 1550s, from French sectaire or directly from Medieval Latin sectarius, from secta "religious group, sect in philosophy or religion" (see sect).

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sattva (n.)

"truth" (in Hindu philosophy), from Sanskrit sattvah "truth," literally "being," cognate with Gothic sunjis, Old English soð "true" (see sooth).

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hedonic (adj.)

"of or relating to pleasure," also, "of or having to do with the Cyrenaic school of philosophy," 1650s, from Greek hēdonikos "pleasurable," from hēdone "pleasure" (see hedonist).

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yang (n.)

masculine or positive principle in Chinese philosophy, 1670s, from Mandarin yang, said to mean "male, daylight, solar," or "sun, positive, male genitals."

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impressionism (n.)

1839 as a term in philosophy, from impression + -ism. With reference to the French art movement, 1879, from impressionist. Extended 1880s to music (Debussy), literature, etc.

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cynicism (n.)

1670s, "philosophy or doctrines of the Cynics" (indifference to pleasure, stoicism pushed to austerity, asceticism), from cynic + -ism. Meaning "cynical character" is from 1847. For nuances of usage, see humor (n.).

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