"apparent displacement of an object observed, due to an actual displacement of the observer," 1570s, from French parallaxe (mid-16c.), from Greek parallaxis "change, alteration, inclination of two lines meeting at an angle," from parallassein "to alter, make things alternate," from para- (see para- (1)) + allassein "to change," from allos "other" (from PIE root *al- "beyond"). Related: Parallactic.
"the Second Coming," 1875, a reference to Matthew xxiv.27, from Greek parousia, literally "presence," from para- (see para- (1)) + ousia "essence," from on, genitive ontos, present participle of einai "to be" (from PIE root *es- "to be"). Parusia, from a Modern Latin form of the Greek word, is a term in rhetoric: "the use of the present tense instead of the past or future, for dramatic effect."
"light, portable screen or canopy carried to shield from the sun," 1610s, from French parasol (1570s), from Italian parasole, literally "protection from the sun," from para- "defense against" (see para- (2)) + sole "sun," from Latin solem (nominative sol; from PIE root *sawel- "the sun"). Originally used by persons of high rank in the East and by fashionable women in Europe.
"cognate word, a word which is derivative from another or from the same third word," 1846, from Greek paronymos, "formed by a slight change," from para- (see para- (1)) + onyma "name" (from PIE root *no-men- "name"). Paronymous "having the same derivation, allied in origin" is from 1660s; in the sense of "having similar sound but differing in spelling and sense" is is by 1836. Related: Paronymic; paronymy.
c. 1200, palefrei (mid-12c. as a surname), "saddle horse for ordinary riding (opposed to a war horse), a fine, small horse for ladies," from Old French palefroi (11c., palefreid) and directly from Medieval Latin palafredus, altered by dissimilation from Late Latin paraveredus "post horse for outlying districts" (6c.), originally "extra horse," from Greek para "beside, secondary" (see para-) + Medieval Latin veredus "post horse; light, fast horse used by couriers," which is probably from Gaulish *voredos, from Celtic *wo-red- (source also of Welsh gorwydd "horse," Old Irish riadaim "I ride"), from PIE root *reidh- "to ride" (see ride (v.)). The Latin word passed to Old High German as pfarifrid, and in modern German it has become the usual word for "horse" (Pferd).
"situated near the ear," 1680s, from French parotide (1540s), or directly from Latin parotid-, stem of parotis, from Greek parotis "tumor near the ear," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + ot-, stem of ous "ear" (see ear (n.1)). As a noun, "the parotid gland." Middle English had parotide (n.) "a tumor or sore near an ear" (c. 1200).
mid-15c., Paraclit, a title of the Holy Spirit, from Old French paraclet (13c.), from Medieval Latin paracletus, from a Church Latin rendering of Greek paraklētos "advocate, intercessor, legal assistant," noun use of an adjective meaning "called to one's aid," from parakalein "to call to one's aid," in later use "to comfort, to console," from para (see para- (1)) + kalein "to call" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout").
[I]n the widest sense, a helper, succorer, aider, assistant; so of the Holy Spirit destined to take the place of Christ with the apostles (after his ascension to the Father), to lead them to a deeper knowledge of gospel truth, and to give them the divine strength needed to enable them to undergo trials and persecutions on behalf of the divine kingdom .... [Thayer, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament," 1889]
But also sometimes translated in English bibles as Advocate, on the notion of "intercession." The word was earlier borrowed directly from Latin as paraclitus (early 13c.).