Etymology
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pomander (n.)

late 15c., pomendambre, "mix of aromatic herbs in a bag or perforated apple-shaped shell, carried or worn around the neck as a preservative against infection," from Old French pomme d'embre (13c.), from pome "apple" (from Latin pomum; see Pomona) + ambre "amber" (see amber). By mid-20c. the word was used for an orange stuck with cloves and hung in a wardrobe or placed in a drawer with clothing.

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Boer (n.)
"Dutch colonist in South Africa," 1824, from Dutch boer "farmer," from Middle Dutch, cognate with Old English gebur "dweller, farmer, peasant," and thus related to bower, German Bauer, and the final syllable of neighbor; from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow."

The Boer War (1899-1902), in which Great Britain defeated the South African Republic of Transvaal and Orange Free State, was technically the Second Boer War, there having been a brief preview 1880-1881.
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nasturtium (n.)

name given to various plants of the mustard family, including watercress, late Old English nasturtium, nasturcium, from Latin nasturtium "cress;" the popular etymology explanation of the name (Pliny) is that it is from Latin *nasitortium, literally "nose-twist," from nasus "nose" (from PIE root *nas- "nose") + past participle of torquere "to twist" (from PIE root *terkw- "to twist"); the plant so called for its somewhat acrid odor. Modern application to a South American trailing plant with orange flowers is recorded from 1704.

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love-apple (n.)

old name for "tomato," 1570s, translating French pomme d'amour, corresponding to German Liebesapfel, etc., but the alleged aphrodisiac qualities that supposedly inspired the name seem far-fetched. The phrase also has been explained as a mangled transliteration of the Italian name pomo d'oro (by 1560s), taken as from adorare "to adore," but probably rather from d'or "of gold" (the earliest tomatoes brought to Italy in the mid-1500s apparently were of the yellow or orange variety), or, less likely, pomo de'Mori or Spanish pome dei Moro, literally "Moorish apple."

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oriflamme (n.)

sacred banner of St. Denis, mid-15c., oriflamble, from Old French orie flambe, from Latin aurea flamma "golden flame." The ancient battle standard of the kings of France, it was supposed to have been of red or orange-red silk, with two or three points, and was given to the kings by the abbot of St. Denis on setting out to war. Cotgrave says it was "borne at first onely in warres made against Infidells; but afterwards vsed in all other warres; and at length vtterly lost in a battell against the Flemings." It is last mentioned in an abbey inventory of 1534.

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droog (n.)
"gang member, young ruffian," a transliteration of the Russian word for "friend," introduced by English novelist Anthony Burgess in "A Clockwork Orange" (1962). The Russian word comes from Old Church Slavonic drugu "companion, friend, other" (source of Bohemian drug "companion," Serbo-Croatian drugi "other"), which belongs to a group of related Indo-European words (such as Lithuanian draugas "friend, traveling companion;" Gothic driugan "do military service," ga-drauhts "soldier;" Old Norse drott, Old English dryht, Old High German truht "multitude, people, army") apparently with an original sense of "companion."
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salmon (n.)

early 13c., samoun, the North Atlantic salmon, from Anglo-French samoun, Old French salmun (Modern French saumon), from Latin salmonem (nominative salmo) "a salmon," probably originally "leaper," from salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)), though some dismiss this as folk etymology. Another theory traces the Latin word to Celtic.

It replaced Old English læx, from PIE *lax, the more usual word for the fish (see lox). The classical -l- was restored in English from 16c., though Scott still uses saumon. In reference to a pinkish-orange color like that of the flesh of the fish, it is recorded by 1786. Related: Salmonic.

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apricot (n.)

roundish, orange-colored, plum-like fruit, 1550s, abrecock, from Catalan abercoc, related to Portuguese albricoque, from Arabic al-birquq, through Byzantine Greek berikokkia which is probably from Latin (mālum) praecoquum "early-ripening (fruit)" (see precocious). Form assimilated to French abricot.

Latin praecoquis early-ripe, can probably be attributed to the fact that the fruit was considered a variety of peach that ripened sooner than other peaches .... [Barnhart]

Native to the Himalayas, it was introduced in England in 1524. The older Latin name for it was prunum Armeniacum or mālum Armeniacum, in reference to supposed origin in Armenia. As a color name, by 1906.

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mandarin (n.)

1580s, "Chinese official," via Portuguese mandarim or older Dutch mandorijn from Malay (Austronesian) mantri, from Hindi mantri "councilor, minister of state," from Sanskrit mantri, nominative of mantrin- "adviser," from mantra "counsel," from PIE root *men- (1) "to think." Form influenced in Portuguese by mandar "to command, order."

Used generically for the several grades of Chinese officials; the Chinese equivalent is kwan "public servant." Sense of "chief dialect of Chinese" (spoken by officials and educated people and generally in the northern, central, and western provinces and Manchuria) is from c. 1600. Transferred sense of "important person" attested by 1907. The type of small, deep-colored orange so called from 1771, from resemblance of its color to that of robes worn by mandarins.

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carpaccio (n.)

"raw meat or fish served as an appetizer," 1975, from Italian, often connected to the name of Renaissance painter Vittore Carpaccio (c. 1460-1526) but without any plausible explanation except perhaps that his pictures often feature an orange-red hue reminiscent of some raw meat (and were the subject of a popular exhibit in Venice in 1963).

Giuseppe Cipriani, the owner of Harry's Bar [in Venice], claimed to have first served it around 1950 for a customer who demanded raw meat, but its name is not recorded in print before 1969 .... Over the decades the term has broadened out to cover any raw ingredient, including fish and even fruit, sliced thinly. [Ayto, "Diner's Dictionary"]
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