1560s, "study and description of natural objects, natural philosophy" (a sense now obsolete), from French physiologie (16c.) or directly from Latin physiologia "natural science, study of nature," from Greek physiologia "natural science, inquiry into nature," from physios "nature" (see physio-) + logia "study" (see -logy). Meaning "science of the normal function of living things" is attested from 1610s. Related: Physiologic; physiologist.
The two words [physics/physiology] had once the same wide meaning of natural science or natural philosophy. They have now been narrowed & differentiated, physics retaining only the properties of matter & energy in inorganic nature, & physiology only the normal functions & phenomena of living beings. [Fowler, 1926]
"restore to a good or normal physical condition" after weakness or exhaustion, 1530s, from Latin recreatus, past participle of recreare "to refresh, restore, make anew" (see recreation (n.)). Earlier it meant "refresh or cheer" (late 15c.); the intransitive sense of "refresh oneself" is by 1520s; that of "take recreation" is by 1580s.
1812, from French anormal, from Medieval Latin anormalus, a corruption of anomalus (from Greek anomalos "uneven, irregular;" see anomaly), as if from Latin ab "away" + norma "rule, pattern." In 20c., used as "an antonym of 'normal' when the association of 'abnormal', i.e. 'unhealthy', 'unnatural', would be inappropriate" [OED].
1590s, "a wandering, act of straying," from Latin aberrationem (nominative aberratio) "a wandering," noun of action from past-participle stem of aberrare "to wander out of the way, lose the way, go astray," literally and figuratively, from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + errare "to wander, stray, roam, rove" (see err). Meaning "deviation from the normal type" is attested by 1735.
also auto-immune, "arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part," 1952, from auto- + immune. Related: Autoimmunity, attested by 1903 as "immunity, natural or acquired, effected by the unaided powers of the organism, independent of external agencies." Modern sense of "immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues" is from 1950s.
"distorted projection or drawing" (one that looks normal from a particular angle or with a certain mirror), 1727, from Greek anamorphosis "transformation," noun of action from anamorphoein "to transform," from ana "up" (see ana-) + morphosis, from morphe "form," a word of uncertain etymology. In botany, "monstrous development of a part" (1830); in evolutionary biology, "gradual change of form in a species over time" (1852).
"normal rhythmic relaxation of the heart" (alternating with the systole), 1570s, from medical Latin diastole, from Greek diastole "drawing asunder, dilation," from diastellein, from dia "through; thoroughly, entirely" (see dia-) + stellein "to set in order, arrange, array, equip, make ready," from PIE *stel-yo-, suffixed form of root *stel- "to put, stand, put in order," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place. Related: Diastolic.
in architecture, "an S-shaped molding," 1670s, said to be from a corruption of French ogive "diagonal rib of a vault" of a type normal in 13c. French architecture, earlier augive, a word of unknown origin. According to Watkins, in part from Latin via "way, road" (see via). Related: ogival. Middle English had ogif (late 13c.) "a stone for the diagonal rib of a vault," from the French word and Medieval Latin ogiva.