Etymology
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cave-dweller (n.)

"prehistoric human or animal who lived in natural caves," 1857, from cave (n.) + dweller.

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dendrology (n.)

1708, "a treatise on trees;" by 1825 as "the natural history of trees;" see dendro- "tree" + -ology. Related: Dendrological; dendrologist.

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incapacitate (v.)
1650s in a legal sense; 1660s in general use, "deprive of natural power," from incapacity + -ate. Related: Incapacitated; incapacitating.
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petrochemical (n.)

"chemical compound or element obtained from petroleum or natural gas," 1942, from petro- (2) + chemical (n.).

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self-preservation (n.)

"preservation of oneself from destruction or injury," especially as an instinct or natural law, 1610s; see self- + preservation.

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selection (n.)

1620s, "act of selecting, action of choosing, fact of being selected or chosen," from Latin selectionem (nominative selectio) "a choosing out, choice, selection," noun of action from past-participle stem of seligere "choose out, single out, select; separate, cull" (see select (adj.)).

The meaning "thing selected, a number of things chosen, a particular choice" is from 1805. The biological sense of "separation of those forms of life which are to survive and reproduce from those which are not" is by 1837 in reference to systematic breeding of plants and animals by humans (methodical selection), hence its extended use by Darwin (1857) in reference to the results of the impersonal agency of nature and time (natural selection). French sélection is a 19c. borrowing from English.

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counter-tendency (n.)

also countertendency, "natural or prevailing disposition" in some direction, especially opposed to some other tendency, 1849, from counter- + tendency.

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mechanization (n.)

"action of making or rendering mechanical" in any sense of that word, 1834, from mechanize + -ation.

In our country, the ancient languages are studied, to a sad extent, as a mere exercise in the technics of etymology, syntax and prosody; and when thus pursued, there can be no good reason for so great a sacrifice of time and labor, or for that mechanization (if we may make a term) of mind which is the natural result. ["American Annals of Education and Instruction," December 1834]
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untaught (adj.)
mid-14c., "not instructed or educated," from un- (1) "not" + taught. Hence "spontaneous, natural" (mid-15c.).
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congenial (adj.)

1620s, "kindred, partaking of the same nature or natural characteristics," from assimilated form of Latin com "with, together" (see con-) + genialis "of birth," thus, "kindred" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups). Sense of "agreeable" is first recorded 1711 on the notion of "having natural affinity." Also compare congenital.

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