Etymology
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trapezius (n.)
muscle over the back of the neck, 1704, from Modern Latin trapezius (musculus), masc. adjective from trapezium (see trapezium). So called from the shape they form.
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quadricep (n.)

large extensor muscle of the thigh, 1840, Modern Latin, from quadri- on model of bicep (q.v.). Related: Quadriceps. So called because divided into four parts.

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myocardium (n.)

"muscular substance of the heart," 1866, from myo- "muscle" + Latinized form of Greek kardia "heart" (from PIE root *kerd- "heart"). Related: Myocardial; myocardiac; myocarditis.

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phrenic (adj.)

"of or pertaining to the diaphragm," 1704, from Modern Latin phrenicus, from Greek phrēn "the diaphragm, muscle which parts the heart and lungs from the digestive organs" (see phreno-).

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lean (n.2)
c. 1200, "lean animals or persons," from lean (adj.). Meaning "lean part of anything, muscle without fat, lean meat" is mid-15c.
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abductor (n.)

1610s, in physiology, a muscle that moves (a limb) away from the axis of the body, from Latin abductor, agent noun from abducere "to lead away," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + ducere "to lead" (from PIE root *deuk- "to lead").

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tensor (n.)
muscle that stretches or tightens a part, 1704, Modern Latin agent noun from tens-, past participle stem of Latin tendere "to stretch," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch."
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aponeurosis (n.)
"fascia, fascia-like tendon, white fibrous membrane of the body (often connecting a muscle with a tendon)," 1670s, from Latin, from Greek aponeurosis, from aponeuroein, from apo "change into" (see apo-) + neuron "sinew" (see neuro-).
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sarcomere (n.)

"structural unit of a muscle," 1891, from sarco-, Latinized combining form of Greek sarx "flesh" (see sarcasm) + -mere, from Greek meros "part," from PIE root *(s)mer- (2) "to get a share of something."

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clonus (n.)

"violent muscular spasms, rapidly alternating contraction and relaxation of a muscle," 1817, from Modern Latin, from Greek klonos "turmoil, any violent motion; confusion, tumult, press of battle," a word of uncertain origin. Related: Clonicity.

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