Etymology
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modicum (n.)
"small quantity or portion," late 15c., Scottish, from Latin modicum "a little," noun use of neuter of modicus "moderate, having a proper measure; ordinary, scanty, small, few," from modus "measure, extent, quantity; proper measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures."
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majoritarian (adj.)

"governed or ruled by the majority; supporting the majority party," 1917, from majority + political ending -arian. It seems to have been used first in a German context, in reference to the moderate Majority Socialists, and it is perhaps based on Bolshevik. As a noun by 1920. Related: Majoritarianism.

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temper (v.)
late Old English temprian "to moderate, bring to a proper or suitable state, to modify some excessive quality, to restrain within due limits," from Latin temperare "observe proper measure, be moderate, restrain oneself," also transitive, "mix correctly, mix in due proportion; regulate, rule, govern, manage." This is often described as from Latin tempus "time, season" (see temporal), with a sense of "proper time or season." But as the root sense of tempus seems to be "stretch," the words in the "restrain, modify" sense might be from a semantic shift from "stretching" to "measuring" (compare temple (n.1)). Meaning "to make (steel) hard and elastic" is from late 14c. Sense of "tune the pitch of a musical instrument" is recorded from c. 1300. Related: Tempered; tempering.
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immodest (adj.)
1560s, "arrogant, impudent, not modest about one's pretentions," from Latin immodestus "unrestrained, excessive," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + modestus "moderate, keeping due measure, sober, gentle, temperate," from modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Meaning "indecent, lewd, not modest in person or utterance" is from 1580s. Related: immodestly.
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valise (n.)

1610s, "suitcase, soldier's kit bag," from French valise (16c.), from Italian valigia, a word of uncertain origin. Attested in Medieval Latin forms valisia (early 15c.), valixia (late 13c.). "The name is generally given to a leather case of moderate size, opening wide on a hinge or like a portfolio ...." [Century Dictionary]

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slack (v.)
1510s, "to moderate, make slack," back-formed from slack (adj.) after the original verb veered into the specialized sense of slake. Meaning "be remiss, inactive or idle, fail to exert oneself" is attested from 1540s; current use is probably a re-coining from c. 1904 (see slacker, and compare Old English slacful "lazy," sleacmodnes "laziness"). Related: Slacked; slacking.
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assuage (v.)
"to soften," usually figuratively, of pain, anger, passion, grief, etc., c. 1300, from Anglo-French assuager, Old French assoagier "soften, moderate, alleviate, calm, soothe, pacify," from Vulgar Latin *adsuaviare, from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + suavis "sweet, agreeable," from PIE root *swād- "sweet, pleasant" (see sweet (adj.)). For sound development in French, compare deluge from Latin diluvium, abridge from abbreviare. Related: Assuaged; assuaging.
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minimalist (n.)

1907, "person who advocates moderate reforms or policies;" see minimal + -ist. Originally an Englishing of Menshevik (q.v.); in sense of "practitioner of minimal art" it is first recorded 1967; the term minimal art itself is from 1965. As an adjective from 1917 in the Russian political sense; 1969 in reference to art. Related: Minimalistic; Minimalism.

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abstemious (adj.)
"sparing or moderate in eating or drinking," c. 1600, from Latin abstemius "sober, temperate, abstaining from wine," from assimilated form of ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + stem of temetum "strong drink," which is related to temulentus "drunken." Etymologically it refers only to abstaining from alcoholic drink, but it was extended in Latin to temperance in living generally. Related: Abstemiously; abstemiousness.
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intemperance (n.)
early 15c., "lack of restraint, excess," also of weather, "inclemency, severity," from Old French intemperance (14c.) and directly from Latin intemperantia "intemperateness, immoderation, excess" (as in intemperantia vini "immoderate use of wine"), from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + temperantia "moderation, sobriety, discretion, self-control," from temperans, present participle of temperare "to moderate" (see temper (v.)).
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