Etymology
Advertisement
civil service (n.)

"the executive branch of the public service," as distinguished from the military, naval, legislative, or judicial, 1765, originally in reference to non-military staff of the East India Company, from civil in the sense "not military." Civil servant is from 1792.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
scuffle (v.)

"to push or fight in a disorderly manner, struggle confusedly at close quarters," 1570s (transitive), 1580s (intransitive), probably a frequentative form of scuff (v.), but OED is against this; perhaps ultimately of Scandinavian origin. Related: Scuffled; scuffling. As a noun, "a confused pushing or struggle," c. 1600, from the verb.

Related entries & more 
firing (n.)
1540s, "action of applying fire or setting on fire," verbal noun from fire (v.). From c. 1600 as "act of discharging firearms." Firing squad is attested from 1891 in reference to military executions; earlier as "those selected to fire over the grave of anyone interred with military honors" (1864); earlier in both senses is firing-party (1798 in reference to military executions; 1776 in reference to military funerals).
Related entries & more 
novitiate (n.)

also noviciate, c. 1600, "state of being a novice," from French noviciat or directly from Medieval Latin novitiatus, from Late Latin novitius "novice," from Latin adjective novicius "newly arrived, inexperienced" (see novice). Meaning "quarters in a convent occupied by novices" is from 1620s.

Related entries & more 
samurai (n.)

one of the military class in Japanese feudalism, originally a military retainer of a daimio, 1727, from Japanese samurai "warrior, knight," variant of saburai, nominal form of sabura(h)u "to be in attendance, to serve."

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
chum (n.1)

"friend, intimate companion," 1680s, originally university slang for "roommate," an alternative spelling of cham, short for chamber(mate); the formation is typical of the late-17c. fondness for clipped words. Among derived forms used 19c. were chumship; chummery "shared bachelor quarters," chummage "system of quartering more than one to a room."

Related entries & more 
awol (adj.)

also a.w.o.l., military initialism (acronym) for absent without leave (itself attested by 1767 in a military context). In U.S. military use by 1917. According to the "Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage" (1957), pronounced as four letters in World War I, as a word in World War II.

Related entries & more 
jackboot (n.)
also jack-boot, 1680s, type of large, strong over-the-knee cavalry boot of 17c.-18c., later a type worn by German military and para-military units in the Nazi period. From jack (n.), though the exact sense here is unclear + boot (n.1). Figurative of military oppression since 1768. Related: Jackbooted.
Related entries & more 
Caligula 
cognomen of the mad, extravagant, and legendarily cruel third Roman emperor (12 C.E.-41 C.E.), born Gaius Caesar. The nickname is Latin, literally "little boot," given when he joined his father on military campaigns when still a toddler, in full, child-sized military gear; it is a diminutive of caliga "heavy military shoe," which is of unknown origin.
Related entries & more 
foot-locker (n.)
1905, U.S. military, from foot (n.) + locker.
Related entries & more 

Page 4