Etymology
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googol (n.)
number represented by 1 followed by 100 zeroes, 1940, in "Mathematics and the Imagination," a layman's book on mathematics written by U.S. mathematicians Edward Kasner (1878-1955) and James R. Newman, the word supposedly coined a year or two before by Kasner's 9- (or 8-) year-old nephew (unnamed in the book's account of the event), when asked for a name for an enormous number. Perhaps influenced by comic strip character Barney Google. Googolplex (10 to the power of a googol) coined at the same time, in the same way, with -plex.
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flexure (n.)
1590s, "action of flexing or bending," from Latin flextura, from flectere "to bend" (see flexible). From 1620s as "flexed or bent condition; direction in which something is bent." Picked up in mathematics (1670s), geology (1833).
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coaxial (adj.)

also co-axial, "having a common axis," 1850 as a term in mathematics; the coaxial cable, one containing several coaxial lines, is attested by that name from 1934. See co- + axial. Earlier coaxal (1847). Related: Coaxially; coaxiation.

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minuend (n.)

in mathematics, "number from which another number is to be subtracted," 1706, from Latin minuendus (numerus), gerundive past participle of minuere "to reduce, diminish, make small" (from PIE root *mei- (2) "small").

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mathematical (adj.)

"of, pertaining to, or of the nature of mathematics," early 15c., from Medieval Latin mathematicus "of or belonging to mathematics," from Latin mathematica (see mathematic) + -al (1). Also, by 1765, "pertaining to the quadrivium," comprising arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. It also could include optics. Related: Mathematically.

The four mathematical arts are arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy; these anciently were termed the quadrivium, or fourfold way of knowledge. [Sir John Hawkins, "A General History of the Science and Practice of Music," Sir John Hawkins, 1776]
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theorem (n.)

"demonstrable proposition in science or mathematics," 1550s, from French théorème (16c.) and directly from Late Latin theorema, from Greek theorema "spectacle, sight," in Euclid "proposition to be proved," literally "that which is looked at," from theorein "to look at, behold" (see theory).

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differential (adj.)
Origin and meaning of differential

1640s, "making or exhibiting a difference," from Medieval Latin differentialis, from Latin differentia "diversity, difference" (see difference). Related: Differentially. As a noun in mathematics, "an infinitesimal difference between two values of variable quantity," from 1704. Differential calculus is attested from 1702.

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catenary (adj.)

"relating to a chain, like a chain or rope hanging freely from two fixed points," 1872, from Latin catenarius "relating to a chain," from catenanus "chained, fettered," from catena "chain, fetter, shackle" (see chain (n.)). As a noun in mathematics, "catenary curve," from 1788. Related: Catenarian.

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Maya 

of or pertaining to the large group of native people of the Yucatan, or to their ancient civilization, at its peak c. 250 C.E. to 9c., noted for its fully developed written script, mathematics (which included zero), and astronomy; 1822, from the native name. Related: Mayan (1831).

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resultant (n.)

mid-15c., in mathematics, "the total or sum, the sum of an addition or product of a multiplication," from Medieval Latin resultantem (nominative resultans), present participle of resultare "to result" (see result (v.)). Sense in mechanics is from 1815.

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