Etymology
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philosophical (adj.)

late 14c., "learned, skilled in learning;" c. 1500 as "related or belonging to philosophy or philosophers;" see philosophy + -ical. Related: Philosophically.

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Talmud (n.)
body of Jewish traditional ceremonial and civil law, 1530s, from late Hebrew talmud "instruction" (c. 130 C.E.), from lamadh "he learned." Related: Talmudic; Talmudist.
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could (v.)

Old English cuðe, past tense of cunnan "to be able" (see can (v.1)); ending changed 14c. to standard English -d(e). The unetymological -l- was added 15c.-16c. on model of would, should, where it is historical. Could be as a response to a suggestion, indicating it may be correct, is by 1938.

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mathematician (n.)

"one skilled or learned in mathematics," early 15c., mathematicion, from Old French mathematicien, from mathematique, from Latin mathematicus "of or belonging to mathematics," from Latin mathematica (see mathematic).

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autoimmune (adj.)

also auto-immune, "arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part," 1952, from auto- + immune. Related: Autoimmunity, attested by 1903 as "immunity, natural or acquired, effected by the unaided powers of the organism, independent of external agencies." Modern sense of "immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues" is from 1950s.

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crafty (adj.)

mid-12c., crafti, "skillful, clever, learned," from Old English cræftig "strong, powerful," later "skillful, ingenious," acquiring after c. 1200 a bad sense of "cunning, sly, skillful in scheming," the main modern sense (but through 15c. also "skillfully done or made; intelligent, learned; artful, scientific"); see craft (n.) + -y (2). Perhaps to retain a distinctly positive sense, Middle English also used craftious as "skillful, artistic" (mid-15c.). Related: Craftily; craftiness.

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vagrant (adj.)
early 15c., from Anglo-French vagarant, waucrant, and sharing with it the history to be found under vagrant (n.). Dogberry's corruption vagrom ("Much Ado about Nothing") persisted through 19c. in learned jocularity.
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grammarian (n.)
late 14c., "writer on (Latin) grammar; philologist, etymologist;" in general use, "learned man," from Old French gramairien "wise man, person who knows Latin; magician" (Modern French grammairien), agent noun from grammaire (see grammar).
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assort (v.)

late 15c., "to distribute into groups or classes," from Old French assorter "to assort, match" (15c., Modern French assortir), from a- "to" (see ad-) + sorte "kind, category," from Latin sortem (nominative sors) "lot; fate, destiny; share, portion; rank, category; sex, class, oracular response, prophecy" (from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up"). Related: Assorted; assorting.

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eremite (n.)
c. 1200, learned form of hermit (q.v.) based on Church Latin eremita. Since mid-17c. in poetic or rhetorical use only, except in reference to specific persons in early Church history. Related: Eremitic; eremitical.
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