Etymology
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curiosity (n.)

late 14c., "careful attention to detail" (a sense now obsolete); also "skilled workmanship;" also "desire to know or learn, inquisitiveness" (in Middle English usually in bad senses: "prying; idle or vain interest in worldly affairs; sophistry; fastidiousness"); from Old French curiosete "curiosity, avidity, choosiness" (Modern French curiosité), from Latin curiositatem (nominative curiositas) "desire of knowledge, inquisitiveness," from curiosus "careful, diligent; inquiring eagerly, meddlesome," akin to cura "care" (see cure (n.)). 

Neutral or good sense "desire to see or learn what is strange or unknown" is from early 17c. Meaning "an object of interest, something rare or strange" is from 1640s. Curiosity-shop is from 1818.

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gnostic (adj.)

"relating to knowledge," especially mystical or esoteric knowledge of spiritual things, 1650s, from Greek gnōstikos "knowing, good at knowing, able to discern," from gnōstos "known, perceived, understood," earlier gnōtos, from gignōskein "learn to know, come to know, perceive; discern, distinguish; observe, form a judgment," from PIE *gi-gno-sko-, reduplicated and suffixed form of root *gno- "to know."

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diagnosis (n.)

"scientific discrimination," especially in pathology, "the recognition of a disease from its symptoms," 1680s, medical Latin application of Greek diagnōsis "a discerning, distinguishing," from stem of diagignōskein "discern, distinguish," literally "to know thoroughly" or "know apart (from another)," from dia "between" (see dia-) + gignōskein "to learn, to come to know," from PIE root *gno- "to know."

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y'all (pron.)

by 1879, U.S. dialect abbreviation of you all (see you, and compare yins).

Children learn from the slaves some odd phrases ... as ... will you all do this? for, will one of you do this? ["Arthur Singleton" (Henry C. Knight), "Letters from the South and West," 1824]

We-all for "us" is attested by 1865; we-uns by 1864. Who-all attested from 1899.

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apperceive (v.)
c. 1300, "to perceive, notice," especially of internal observation (a sense now obsolete), from Old French apercevoir "perceive, notice, become aware of" (11c.), from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + percipere "gather, seize entirely," also, figuratively, "to grasp with the mind, learn, comprehend" (see perceive. In modern psychological use (1876), a back-formation from apperception (q.v.). Related: Apperceived; apperceiving; apperceptive.
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Bourbon 

line of French kings (who also ruled in Naples and Spain), who ruled 1589-1792 and 1815-1848; its name is from Bourbon l'Archambault, chief town of a lordship in central France, probably from Borvo, name of a local Celtic deity associated with thermal springs, whose name probably is related to Celtic borvo "foam, froth." Proverbially, they "forget nothing and learn nothing" (the quip is attested by 1830, source unknown), hence the name was used generally of extreme conservatives.

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docile (adj.)

late 15c. (Caxton), "easily taught, quick to learn," from Italian or French docile, from Latin docilis "easily taught," from docere "to show, teach, cause to know," originally "make to appear right," causative of decere "be seemly, fitting," from PIE root *dek- "to take, accept." Sense of "obedient, submissive, easily managed, tractable" is recorded by 1774. Middle English also had docible "ready or willing to teach" (c. 1400).

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parrot (n.)

bird of the family Psittacidae, widespread in the tropics and noted for beautiful plumage and a fleshy tongue, which gives it the ability to learn to articulate words and sentences, 1520s, a word of uncertain origin, perhaps from dialectal French perrot, from a variant of Pierre "Peter;" or perhaps a dialectal form of perroquet (see parakeet). Replaced earlier popinjay. The German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt in South America in 1800 encountered a very old parrot that was the sole speaker of a dead native language, the original tribe having gone extinct.

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Gnostic (n.)

1580s, "believer in a mystical religious doctrine of spiritual knowledge," from Late Latin Gnosticus "a Gnostic," from Late Greek Gnōstikos, noun use of adjective gnōstikos "knowing, able to discern, good at knowing," from gnōstos "known, to be known," from gignōskein "to learn, to come to know," from PIE root *gno- "to know." Applied to various early Christian sects that claimed direct personal knowledge beyond the Gospel or the Church hierarchy; they appeared in the first century A.D., flourished in the second, and were stamped out by the 6th.

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nautilus (n.)

marine cephalopod, c. 1600, from Latin nautilus, in Pliny a kind of marine snail (including also squid, cuttlefish, polyps, etc.), from Greek nautilos "paper nautilus," literally "sailor," a poetic form of nautēs "sailor," from naus "ship" (from PIE root *nau- "boat"). From Aristotle into the 19c., the nautilus was believed to use its webbed arms to sail along the surface of the sea, hence the name.

For thus to man the voice of nature spake,
Go, from the creatures thy instruction take,
Learn of the little Nautilus to sail,
Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale
[Pope ]
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