Etymology
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petal (n.)

"one of the individual parts of a corolla of a flower," 1726 (earlier petala, 1704), from Modern Latin petalum "petal" (17c.), from Greek petalon "a leaf; leaf of metal, thin plate," noun use of neuter of adjective petalos "outspread, broad, flat," from PIE root *pete- "to spread." Related: Petaline.

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lily-pad (n.)
"broad leaf of the water-lily," 1834, American English, from lily (n.) + pad (n.).
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trefoil (n.)
late 14c., type of clover, from Anglo-French trifoil (13c.), Old French trefueil "clover, clover-leaf," from Latin trifolium "three-leaved plant," from tri- "three" (see tri-) + folium "leaf" (from PIE root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom"). As a type of ornamental figure in medieval architecture, early 15c.
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bract (n.)
in botany, "small leaf beneath a flower," Modern Latin, from Latin bractea, literally "thin metal plate," a word of unknown origin. Related: Bracteal; bracteate.
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gillyflower (n.)
type of flowering plant, 1550s, folk etymology alteration (by association with unrelated flower) of gilofre "gillyflower" (late 14c.), originally "clove" (c. 1300), from Old French girofle "clove" (12c.), from Latin caryophyllon, from Greek karyophyllon "clove, nut leaf, dried flower bud of clove tree," from karyon "nut" (see karyo-) + phyllon "leaf" (from suffixed form of PIE root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom"). The flower so named for its scent.
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petiole (n.)

"footstalk of a leaf, the support by which the blade of a leaf is attached to the stem," 1753, from French pétiole (18c.), from Late Latin petiolus, a misspelling of peciolus "stalk, stem," literally "little foot," diminutive of pediculus "foot stalk," itself a diminutive of pes (genitive pedis) "foot," from PIE root *ped- "foot." Given its modern sense by Linnaeus. Related: Petiolar; petiolate.

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folic (adj.)
1941, in folic acid, coined from Latin folium "a leaf" (see folio) + -ic. So called for its abundance in green leaves, such as those of spinach.
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erose (adj.)
of a leaf, an insect wing, etc., "with indented edges that appear as if gnawed," 1793, from Latin erosus, past participle of erodere "gnaw away" (see erode).
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Phyllis 

fem. proper name, in old pastoral poems and plays a generic proper name for a comely rustic maiden (1630s), from Latin Phyllis, a girl's name in Virgil, Horace, etc., from Greek Phyllis, female name, literally "foliage of a tree," from phyllon "a leaf" (from PIE *bholyo- "leaf," suffixed form of root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom"). In English, often spelled Phillis, probably from influence of phil- "loving." Her sweetheart usually was Philander. The generic use was so common that for a time the name was a verb meaning "to celebrate in amatory verses."

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sepal (n.)

in botany, "leaf of the calyx," 1821, from French sépal, from Modern Latin sepalum (H.J. de Necker, 1790), coined from Latin separatus "separate, distinct" (see separate (v.)) + petalum "petal" (see petal).

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