Etymology
Advertisement
squalid (adj.)

1590s, from French squalide and directly from Latin squalidus "rough, coated with dirt, filthy," related to squales "filth," squalus "filthy," squalare "be covered with a rough, stiff layer, be coated with dirt, be filthy," of uncertain origin. Related: Squalidly; squalidness; squalidity.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
mesoderm (n.)

"middle germinal layer of the three-layered embryo of a metazoic animal," 1858, from French mésoderme or German Mesoderm, literally "middle skin," coined by German physician Robert Remak (1815-1865) from meso- "middle" + Greek derma "skin" (see -derm). Related: Mesodermal; mesodermic.

Related entries & more 
marble (v.)

1590s (implied in marbled), "to give (something) the veined and clouded appearance of marble," from marble (n.). Of meat with "veins" of fat, from 1770. Of books, "having the end papers or edges colored or stained in a conventional imitation of marble," 1670s. Related: Marbling.

It is done in a trough of water covered by a layer of gum tragacanth mixed with a little ox-gall. The fluid colors are sprinkled or spattered over this layer with a brush in the arrangement intended for use or in a manner which will admit of producing the desired figuration by drawing a brass comb over the surface. The dampened paper, held by the ends, is lightly passed in a curve over this surface, taking up the colors, and finished by sizing and burnishing or calendering. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
Related entries & more 
plie (n.)

in ballet, 1892, from French plié, literally "bent," from plier "to bend," from Old French ploier "fold, pleat, layer" (12c.), verbal noun from ployer (later pleier) "to bend, to fold," from Latin plicare "to fold, lay" (from PIE root *plek- "to plait"). Compare ply (v.2).

Related entries & more 
gild (v.)
Old English gyldan "to gild, to cover with a thin layer of gold," from Proto-Germanic *gulthjan (source also of Old Norse gylla "to gild," Old High German ubergulden "to cover with gold"), verb from *gultham "gold" (see gold). Related: Gilded; gilding. Figuratively from 1590s.
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
stratum (n.)
"horizontal layer," 1590s, from Modern Latin special use of Latin stratum "thing spread out, coverlet, bedspread, horse-blanket; pavement," noun uses of neuter of stratus "prostrate, prone," past participle of sternere "to spread out, lay down, stretch out," from nasalized form of PIE root *stere- "to spread."
Related entries & more 
line (v.1)
"to cover the inner side of" (clothes, garments, etc.), late 14c., from Old English lin "linen cloth" (see linen). Linen was frequently used in the Middle Ages as a second layer of material on the inner side of a garment. Hence, by extension, "to fill the insides of" (1510s). Related: Lined; lining.
Related entries & more 
corium (n.)

"innermost layer of the skin," 1836, from Latin corium "skin, hide, leather," related to cortex "bark," scortum "skin, hide," from PIE root *sker- (1) "to cut" (compare Sanskrit krtih "hide;" Old Church Slavonic scora "skin," Russian skora "hide," kora "bark;" Welsh corwg "boat made with leather skins," all from the same root).

Related entries & more 
floe (n.)

1817, first used by Arctic explorers, probably from Norwegian flo "layer, slab," from Old Norse flo, from Proto-Germanic *floho-, from PIE root *plak- (1) "to be flat." Related to first element in flagstone. Earlier explorers used flake. Floe-rat was a seal-hunter's name for the ringed seal (1862).

Related entries & more 
retina (n.)

late 14c., "membrane enclosing the eyeball;" c. 1400, "innermost coating of the back of the eyeball;" from Medieval Latin retina "the retina," probably from Vulgar Latin (tunica) *retina, literally "net-like tunic," on resemblance to the network of blood vessels at the back of the eye, and ultimately from Latin rete "net" (see rete).

The Vulgar Latin phrase might be Gerard of Cremona's 12c. translation of Arabic (tabaqa) shabakiyyah "netlike (layer)," itself probably a translation of Greek amphiblēstroeidēs (khiton).

Related entries & more 

Page 4