Etymology
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Gotterdammerung (n.)

1909 in the figurative sense of "complete overthrow" of something; from German Götterdämmerung (18c.), literally "twilight of the gods," from genitive plural of Gott "god" (see god) + Dämmerung "dusk, twilight," from PIE root *teme- "dark" (see temerity). Used by Wagner as the title of the last opera in the Ring cycle. It translates Old Norse ragna rok "the doom or destruction of the gods, the last day, world's end." A better transliteration is Goetterdaemmerung.

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gasp (n.)
1570s, from gasp (v.). Earliest attested use is in the phrase last gasp "final breath before dying." To gasp up the ghost "die" is attested from 1530s.
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final (adj.)
early 14c., from Old French final "final, last," and directly from Late Latin finalis "of or pertaining to an end, concluding, final," from finis "end" (see finish (v.)). As a noun, late 14c., "that which comes last;" meaning "final contest" in a sporting sense is from 1880. As a shortening of final examination, from 1880.
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tau 
nineteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, from Hebrew taw, last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, literally "sign, mark."
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lasting (adj.)
"continuing in time," late Old English, present-participle adjective from last (v.). Related: Lastingly; lastingness.
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viewing (n.)
1540s, "inspection," verbal noun from view (v.). From 1944 as "last presentation of a dead body before the funeral" (earlier viewing (of) the remains, 1920); from 1959 as "the watching of television."
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extremities (n.)
early 15c., "hands and feet, uttermost parts of the body," plural of extremity. Meaning "a person's last moments" is from c. 1600.
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ultimatum (n.)
"final demand," 1731, from Modern Latin, from Medieval Latin ultimatum "a final statement," noun use of Latin adjective ultimatum "last possible, final," neuter of ultimatus (see ultimate). The Latin plural ultimata was used by the Romans as a noun, "what is farthest or most remote; the last, the end." In slang c. 1820s, ultimatum was used for "the buttocks."
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ballast (n.)
"heavy material used to steady a ship," 1520s, from Middle English bar "bare" (see bare (adj.); in this case "mere") + last "a load, burden," from Proto-Germanic *hlasta-, from PIE root *klā- "to spread out flat" (see lade). Or borrowed from identical terms in North Sea Germanic and Scandinavian (compare Old Danish barlast, 14c.). "Mere" because not carried for commercial purposes. Dutch balg-last "ballast," literally "belly-load," is a folk-etymology corruption.
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dubiety (n.)

"doubtfulness, dubiousness," 1650s, from Late Latin dubietas "doubt, uncertainty," from Latin dubius "vacillating, fluctuating," figuratively "wavering in opinion, doubting" (see dubious). Earlier in the same sense were dubiosity (1640s), dubiousness (1650s); also see dubitation.

Ignorance is the mother of two filthy daughters; the first daughter of Ignorance is called dubiety, or doubtfulnesse, which is a continual wavering in opinion; a knowing man hath a fixt spirit, and settled judgement, but an ignorant man is a double-minded man, though he be never so resolute and wilful in his opinions. [W. Geering, "The Mischiefes and Danger of the Sin of Ignorance," London, 1659]
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