Etymology
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resilient (adj.)

1640s, "springing back, returning to the original position," from Latin resilientem "inclined to leap or spring back," present participle of resilire "to jump back" (see resilience). Of material things, "resuming original shape after compression, etc.," by 1670s. Figuratively, of persons "bouncing back" from difficulties, etc., from 1830. Related: Resiliently.

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caper (n.2)

by 1590s, "a playful leap or jump, a skip or spring as in dancing," from caper (v.). Meaning "prank" is from 1840 via notion of "sportive action;" that of "crime" is from 1926. To cut capers "dance in a frolicsome way" is from c. 1600, from cut (v.) in the sense of "perform, execute."

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start (n.)
late 14c., "an involuntary movement of the body, a sudden jump," from start (v.). Meaning "act of beginning to move or act" is from 1560s. Meaning "act of beginning to build a house" is from 1946. That of "opportunity at the beginning of a career or course of action" is from 1849. Paired with finish (n.) from at least 1839. False start first attested 1850.
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resilience (n.)
Origin and meaning of resilience

1620s, "act of rebounding or springing back," often of immaterial things, from Latin resiliens, present participle of resilire "to rebound, recoil," from re- "back" (see re-) + salire "to jump, leap" (see salient (adj.)). Compare result (v.). In physical sciences, the meaning "elasticity, power of returning to original shape after compression, etc." is by 1824.

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pounce (v.)

1680s, originally "to seize with the pounces," from Middle English pownse (n.) "hawk's claw" (see pounce (n.1)). The earlier verb sense was "perforate, make holes in" (late 14c.). Meaning "to jump or fall upon suddenly" is from 1812. Figurative sense of "lay hold of eagerly" is from 1840. Related: Pounced; pouncing. A doublet of punch (v.).

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vault (v.1)

"jump or leap over," especially by aid of the hands or a pole, 1530s, transitive (implied in vaulting); 1560s, intransitive, from French volter "to gambol, leap," from Italian voltare "to turn," from Vulgar Latin *volvitare "to turn, leap," frequentative of Latin volvere "to turn, turn around, roll" (from PIE root *wel- (3) "to turn, revolve"). Related: Vaulted; vaulting.

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cavort (v.)

1793, cauvaut, "to prance, bustle nimbly or eagerly," American English, of uncertain origin, sometimes said to be an alteration of curvet "a leap by a horse," a word from French that is related to curve (v.). Or perhaps from ca-, ka-, colloquial intensive prefix + vault (v.) "to jump, leap." Modern form attested by 1829. Related: Cavorted; cavorting.

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lope (v.)
"to run with long strides," early 15c.; earlier "to leap, jump, spring" (c. 1300), from Old Norse hlaupa "to run, leap, spring up," from Proto-Germanic *hlaupan "to leap" (see leap (v.)). Related: Loped; loping. A lope-staff (c. 1600) was a pole used for leaping over marshes and dikes in low country.
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leap (v.)

c. 1200, from Old English hleapan "to jump, spring clear of the ground by force of an initial bound; run, go; dance, leap upon (a horse)" (class VII strong verb; past tense hleop, past participle hleapen), from Proto-Germanic *hlaupanan (source also of Old Saxon hlopan, Old Norse hlaupa, Old Frisian hlapa, Dutch lopen, Old High German hlouffan, German laufen "to run," Gothic us-hlaupan "to jump up"), of uncertain origin, with no known cognates beyond Germanic; perhaps a substratum word.

First loke and aftirward lepe [proverb recorded from mid-15c.]

Transitive sense "pass over by leaping" is from early 15c. Leap-frog, the children's game, is attested by that name from 1590s ("Henry V"); figurative use by 1704; as a verb from 1872. To leap tall buildings in a single bound (1940s) is from the description of Superman's powers. Related: Leaped; leaping.

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ball (n.2)
"dancing party, social assembly for dancing," 1630s, from French, from Old French baller "to dance," from Late Latin ballare "to dance," from Greek ballizein "to dance, jump about," literally "to throw one's body" (ancient Greek dancing being highly athletic), from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach." Extended meaning "very enjoyable time" is American English slang from 1945, perhaps 1930s in African-American vernacular.
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