Etymology
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madrasah (n.)

Islamic college, school for religious education of youth, 1620s, from Arabic madrasah, literally "a place of study," from locative prefix ma- + stem of darasa "he read repeatedly, he studied," which is related to Hebrew darash (compare midrash "biblical interpretation").

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al Qaida 

also Al-Qaeda; name of a loosely structured jihadist movement founded c. 1989 by Osama bin Laden; from Arabic, literally "the base." A common Arabic term among Muslim radicals from the wider Islamic world who came to Afghanistan in 1980s and fought alongside local rebels against the Soviets, and who regarded themselves and their struggle not merely in Afghan terms but as the "base" or foundation of a wider jihad and revival in Islam. Used by Bin Laden's mentor, Abdallah Azzam, who referred to the "vanguard" which "constitutes the strong foundation [al-qaida al-sulbah] for the expected society." In U.S., the term first turns up in a CIA report in 1996.

Every Muslim, from the moment they realise the distinction in their hearts, hates Americans, hates Jews, and hates Christians. This is a part of our belief and our religion. For as long as I can remember, I have felt tormented and at war, and have felt hatred and animosity for Americans. [Osama bin Laden, interview aired on Al-Jazeera, December 1998]
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Ramadan (n.)

ninth month of the Muslim year, period of the annual thirty-days' fast, 1590s, earlier Ramazan (c. 1500), from Arabic Ramadan (Turkish and Persian ramazan), originally "the hot month," from ramida "be burnt, scorched" (compare Mishnaic Hebrew remetz "hot ashes, embers"). In the Islamic lunar calendar, it passes through all seasons in a cycle of about 33 years, but evidently originally it was a summer month.

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Islamist (n.)
1850, "a Muslim," from Islam + -ist. Later also "scholar of Islamic studies." By 1962 specifically as "strict fundamentalist Sunni Muslim." Islamism is attested from 1747 as "the religion of the Muslims, Islam." Islamite "a Muslim" is from 1786 (1768 as an adjective); Islamize/Islamise (v.) is from 1849.
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dervish (n.)

"Islamic monk or friar who has taken a vow of poverty and austerity," 1580s, from Turkish dervish, from Persian darvesh, darvish "beggar, poor," hence "religious mendicant;" equivalent of Arabic faqir (see fakir). The "whirling dervishes" are one order among many. Originally dervis; modern spelling is from mid-19c.

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Mahdi (n.)

1792, from Arabic mahdiy, literally "he who is guided aright," past participle of hada "to lead in the right way." In Islamic belief, a spiritual and temporal leader destined to appear on earth during the last days. Applied c. 1880 to insurrectionary leaders in the Sudan who claimed to be him. Related: Mahdism; Mahdiism; Mahdian.

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mosque (n.)

"Islamic place of worship and the ecclesiastical organization connected with it," 1717, earlier moseak (c. 1400), also mosquee (16c.), probably in part from French mosquée, from Italian moschea, earlier moscheta, from Spanish mesquita (modern mezquita), from Arabic masjid "temple, place of worship," from sajada "he worshipped" + prefix ma- denoting "place." Mangled in Middle English as muskey, moseache, etc.

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misstate (v.)

also mis-state, "state wrongly, make an erroneous representation of," 1640s, from mis- (1) + state (v.). Related: Misstated; misstating.

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status quo (n.)
"unaltered condition," 1833, from Latin status quo "the state in which," hence "existing state of affairs." Also status quo ante "the state in which before, state of affairs previous" (1877). Related: Status-quoism.
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Baghdad 

capital city of Iraq; the name is pre-Islamic and dates to the 8c., but its origin is disputed. It often is conjectured to be of Indo-European origin, from Middle Persian elements, and mean "gift of god," from bagh "god" (cognate with Russian bog "god," Sanskrit Bhaga; compare Bhagavad-Gita) + dād "given" (from PIE root *do- "to give"). But some have suggested origins for the name in older languages of the region. Marco Polo (13c.) wrote it Baudac.

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