1610s, "small sweet cake made of ground almonds (instead of flour) and whites of eggs," from French macaron (16c.), from dialectal Italian maccarone, the name of a kind of pasty food made of flour, cheese, and butter (see macaroni). The French meaning is said to have been introduced 1552 by Rabelais. The -oon ending was conventional in 15c.-17c. English to add emphasis to borrowings of French nouns ending in stressed -on.
"word used instead of a noun to avoid repetition of it," mid-15c., from Old French pronon, pronom, and directly from Latin pronomen "word standing in place of a noun," from pro, here meaning "in place of," + nomen "name, noun" (from PIE root *no-men- "name"). The Latin word is a loan-translation of Greek antonymia. The form of the English and French words was altered to conform with noun.
"pertaining to the open sea, marine, oceanic" (as opposed to coastal), 1650s, from Latin pelagicus, from Greek pelagikos, from pelagos "sea, high sea, open sea, main." Beekes rejects the traditional derivation from PIE root *plak- (1) "to spread out, be flat" as without evidence and concludes instead that "the word rather seems to be Pre-Greek." In later use especially "living at or near the surface of the open ocean."
1845; in music for stringed instruments of the viol family, noting a manner of playing (and the effect produced by it) when the strings are plucked by the finger instead of sounded by the bow, from Italian pizzicato "plucked," past participle of pizzicare "to pluck (strings), pinch," from pizzare "to prick, to sting," from Old Italian pizzo "point, edge," from Vulgar Latin *pits-, probably of imitative origin. As an adjective from 1880.
"small, keyed, bellows-like wind instrument," 1830, from German Akkordion, from Akkord "musical chord, concord of sounds," from a verb similar to Old French acorder "agree, be in harmony," from Vulgar Latin *accordare (compare Italian accordare "to attune a musical instrument;" see accord (v.)), with suffix on analogy of clarion, etc. Invented 1829 by piano-maker Cyrill Demian of Vienna. The type with a keyboard instead of buttons is a piano accordion. Related: Accordionist.
Middle English pal, from Old English pæll "rich cloth or cloak, purple robe, altar cloth," from Latin pallium "cloak, coverlet, covering," in Tertullian, the garment worn by Christians instead of the Roman toga; related to pallo "robe, cloak," palla "long upper garment of Roman women," perhaps from the root of pellis "skin." The notion of "cloth spread over a coffin" (mid-15c.) led to figurative sense of "dark, gloomy mood" (1742). The earlier figurative sense is "something that covers or conceals" (mid-15c.).