"mental view or survey," 1742, from out- + look (v.). The meaning "prospect for the future" is attested from 1851. Earliest sense was "a place from which an observer looks out or watches anything" (1660s). The literal sense of "vigilant watch, act or practice of looking out" (1815) is rare; look-out being used instead for this.
"with the leave of, by the permission of," 1863, from Latin pace, ablative of pax "peace," as in pace tua "with all deference to you;" from PIE root *pag- "to fasten." "Used chiefly as a courteous or ironical apology for a contradiction or difference of opinion" [OED]. It is sometimes misused as though it means "according to" instead of the opposite.
1610s, "small sweet cake made of ground almonds (instead of flour) and whites of eggs," from French macaron (16c.), from dialectal Italian maccarone, the name of a kind of pasty food made of flour, cheese, and butter (see macaroni). The French meaning is said to have been introduced 1552 by Rabelais. The -oon ending was conventional in 15c.-17c. English to add emphasis to borrowings of French nouns ending in stressed -on.
"word used instead of a noun to avoid repetition of it," mid-15c., from Old French pronon, pronom, and directly from Latin pronomen "word standing in place of a noun," from pro, here meaning "in place of," + nomen "name, noun" (from PIE root *no-men- "name"). The Latin word is a loan-translation of Greek antonymia. The form of the English and French words was altered to conform with noun.
"pertaining to the open sea, marine, oceanic" (as opposed to coastal), 1650s, from Latin pelagicus, from Greek pelagikos, from pelagos "sea, high sea, open sea, main." Beekes rejects the traditional derivation from PIE root *plak- (1) "to spread out, be flat" as without evidence and concludes instead that "the word rather seems to be Pre-Greek." In later use especially "living at or near the surface of the open ocean."